Synthesis of Zeolite Na-LSX from Iraqi Natural Kaolin using Alkaline Fusion Prior to Hydrothermal Synthesis Technique

  • Ali Mohammed Salih 1 Department of Geology, Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0968-3250
  • Craig Williams Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, School of Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
  • Polla Khanaqa Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research (KISSR), Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1045-8720
Keywords: Adsorption, Hydrothermal synthesis, Kaolin, Metakaolin, Natural Zeolite, Synthetic Zeolite, Waste water

Abstract

The synthesis of zeolite materials by hydrothermal transformation of kaolin using an alkaline fusion prior to hydrothermal synthesis method was investigated. The kaolin clay used in the present investigation was supplied from Iraq. The physical and chemical characterization of  the  starting kaolin and produced zeolite Na-LSX samples were carried  out  using  different analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), X – Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). An alkaline fusion method was introduced prior to the hydrothermal treatment while kaolin clay powder was mixed manually with NaOH powder (ratio = 1/1.2 in weight). The metakaolinisation phase was achieved by calcining the mixture in air at 600 oC for 1hr. The result from this route shows that zeolite Na-LSX with cubic rounded edge crystal habit have been successfully synthesised. Finally, The kinetic study indicated the suitability of the zeolite Na-LSX for the removal of Cu2+, Fe3+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ ions from synthetic wastewater.

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Author Biographies

Ali Mohammed Salih, 1 Department of Geology, Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

Dr. Ali Mohammed Salih; Head of  Geology Department, Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research (K.I.S.S.R.), Building No. 10, Alley 60, Gullabax 335, Shorsh Street, Sulaimaniyah, Kurdistan Region Iraq http://www.kissr.edu.krd

Craig Williams, Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, School of Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

Craig has over 25 years’ experience within the zeolite community. After his PhD studies, Craig worked as a research fellow at Edinburgh and Liverpool Universities. In 1990 he joined the staff at Wolverhampton and in 1993 established the meso and microporous research group to study the problems involved in zeolite synthesis and isomorphous substitution. This group now has 27 successfully completed PhD studies. He is an internationally leading figure in the synthesis of metal substituted zeolite frameworks. To date five patents and over 80 publications on various aspects of zeolite science in refereed journals have been produced. In 1999 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) and has served as Secretary and Chair of the Analytical Division of the Midlands Region of the RSC and Secretary of the Industrial Inorganic Chemicals Sector of the RSC. He is also immediate past Secretary of the British Zeolite Association (BZA). 

Polla Khanaqa, Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research (KISSR), Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Geol. Polla A. Khanaqa; Founder & President of: Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research (K.I.S.S.R.), Building No. 10, Alley 60, Gullabax 335, Shorsh Street, Sulaimaniyah, Kurdistan Region Iraq http://www.kissr.edu.krd

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Published
2019-03-12
How to Cite
Salih, A., Williams, C., & Khanaqa, P. (2019, March 12). Synthesis of Zeolite Na-LSX from Iraqi Natural Kaolin using Alkaline Fusion Prior to Hydrothermal Synthesis Technique. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 3(1), 10-17. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v3n1y2019.pp10-17
Section
Research Articles