UKH Journal of Science and Engineering 2019-06-15T23:40:10+03:00 Dr. Sherwan Kafoor Open Journal Systems <p><em>UKH Journal of Science and Engineering</em> (UKHJSE) is a semi-annual academic journal<strong>&nbsp;</strong>published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSE publishes original researches in all areas of Science and Engineering. UKHJSE is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSE provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSE Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSE has an e-ISSN: 2520-7792; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong>10.25079/issn.2520-7792.</strong></p> Assessment of the Carbonate Rocks of the Pila Spi Formation for Cement Industry, in Permam Mountain, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region 2019-06-15T23:40:10+03:00 Varoujan K. Sissakian Dalyia A. Hamoodi Hassan O. Omer Sazan A. Nyazi <p>The Pila Spi Formation is exposed in Permam Mountain forming its carapace, and continuous ridges for few hundreds of&nbsp;kilometers. The rocks of the formation are mainly dolomitic limestone, dolomite, and limestone with various proportions.&nbsp;The thickness of the formation in Permam Mountain is about 100 m. Nine samples are collected from the Pila Spi Formation&nbsp;along a recently road cut across Permam Mountain. The sampling interval varies from 10 to 15 m. The collected samples&nbsp;were subjected to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy test to indicate the percentages of the main oxides in the samples.&nbsp;The results showed that the chemical composition of samples No. 1 and 9 meet the Iraqi standards for cement industry,&nbsp;whereas the remaining samples (Nos. 2–8) do not meet the Iraqi standards, and their total thickness is 80 m. To evaluate the&nbsp;suitability of the exposed rocks for cement industry in the sampled section within the Pila Spi Formation, different ratios of&nbsp;sample No. 1 were mixed with different ratios of a sample called sample No. A, it represents a mixture of samples No. 2–8.&nbsp;The mixing ratios are: (Sample No. 1/sample No. A) 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, and 90/10. The same procedure was&nbsp;repeated for Sample No. 9. Another attempt was performed by mixing equal ratios of samples Nos. 1 and 9 with the same&nbsp;performed ratios with sample No. A.The chemical compositions of the samples were indicated using XRF test. The results&nbsp;showed that the best mixing ratios for the cement industry are 90:10, 80:20, and 70: 30 (samples Nos. 1+9: sample No. A).</p> 2019-03-01T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of Zeolite Na-LSX from Iraqi Natural Kaolin using Alkaline Fusion Prior to Hydrothermal Synthesis Technique 2019-06-15T23:40:09+03:00 Ali Mohammed Salih Craig Williams Polla Khanaqa <p>The synthesis of zeolite materials by hydrothermal transformation of kaolin using an alkaline fusion prior to hydrothermal synthesis method was investigated. The kaolin clay used in the present investigation was supplied from Iraq. The physical and chemical characterization of&nbsp; the&nbsp; starting kaolin and produced zeolite Na-LSX samples were carried&nbsp; out&nbsp; using&nbsp; different analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), X – Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). An alkaline fusion method was introduced prior to the hydrothermal treatment while kaolin clay powder was mixed manually with NaOH powder (ratio = 1/1.2 in weight). The metakaolinisation phase was achieved by calcining the mixture in air at 600 <sup>o</sup>C for 1hr. The result from this route shows that zeolite Na-LSX with cubic rounded edge crystal habit have been successfully synthesised. Finally, The kinetic study indicated the suitability of the zeolite Na-LSX for the removal of Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>3+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> ions from synthetic wastewater.</p> 2019-03-12T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transmission Control Protocol Performance Monitoring for Simulated Wired University Computer Network using OPNET 2019-06-15T23:40:07+03:00 Ammar Hasan Tarik A. Rashid Birzo Ismael Nawzad K. AL-Salihi <p>Computer networks need protocols to govern all transmission and presentation processes. The transmission control&nbsp;protocol (TCP) is one of the most important protocols that have the compatibility to work with all types of computer&nbsp;networks, overcoming all architectural and operating system differences. Nowadays, networks depend on the TCP&nbsp;protocol to control data flow between all types of connected computers, whether it is client or server, over any type of&nbsp;media whether it is wired or wireless networks, for all network topologies. A simulation of a university campus network&nbsp;has been conducted to determine TCP protocol features; those features are taken into consideration as one of the most&nbsp;important network parameters. In all digital networks, the data transmission is not a continuous transmission – instead, it&nbsp;is a discreet transmission, presenting itself as packets. These packets transfer and propagate within the network between&nbsp;computers, and network nodes using the TCP protocol depending on the address, which is embedded in its header. TCP&nbsp;has a great influence on the network speed. The network simulator OPNET provides an easy way of campus design,&nbsp;predicting, and estimating the performance of networks in a university campus environment. In this research, wired<br>connections reach all computer network users at fixed points to maintain higher Mbps and ensure reliable communications&nbsp;between all the campus network nodes, as well as to increase the overall network performance taking into account the&nbsp;future expansions for the university campus network design.</p> 2019-05-22T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Use of Camouflaged Cell Phone Towers for a Quality Urban Environment 2019-06-15T23:40:05+03:00 Salah I. Yahya <p>The widespread use of cell phones has led to cell phone towers being located in many communities. These towers, also&nbsp;called base stations, incorporate electronic equipment and antennas that receive and transmit radiofrequency signals. Along with the towers, used for TV and line of sight microwave communication, the proliferation of these base stations&nbsp;is having a detrimental effect on urban esthetics. It is highly recommended for developing urban areas to consider&nbsp;the problem of these unsightly towers as a form of visual pollution, which increases in parallel with the rise of human&nbsp;population density, and also, the possible electromagnetic field (EMF) hazard due to the existence of the cell phone&nbsp;towers in the residential areas. This paper presents the feasibility of using camouflaged cell phone towers to improve&nbsp;the quality of the urban environment. Cell phone towers disguised as trees might address the visual pollution, while, at&nbsp;the same time, might also mitigate the possible EMF hazard by installing these disguised towers in free spaces, rather&nbsp;than on the roof of buildings, schools, hospitals, etc. The feasibility of implementing such a scenario for a quality urban&nbsp;environment in Koya city is discussed.</p> 2019-05-22T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##