UKH Journal of Science and Engineering <p><em>UKH Journal of Science and Engineering</em> (UKHJSE) is a semi-annual academic journal<strong>&nbsp;</strong>published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSE publishes original researches in all areas of Science and Engineering. UKHJSE is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSE provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSE Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSE has an e-ISSN: 2520-7792; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="">10.25079/issn.2520-7792</a>. </strong><em>UKHJSE</em> is a&nbsp;member of the DOAJ.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).<br> </p> (Prof. Tarik A. Rashid) Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Assessment of the Carbonate Rocks of the Pila Spi Formation for Cement Industry, in Permam Mountain, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region <p>The Pila Spi Formation is exposed in Permam Mountain forming its carapace, and continuous ridges for few hundreds of&nbsp;kilometers. The rocks of the formation are mainly dolomitic limestone, dolomite, and limestone with various proportions.&nbsp;The thickness of the formation in Permam Mountain is about 100 m. Nine samples are collected from the Pila Spi Formation&nbsp;along a recently road cut across Permam Mountain. The sampling interval varies from 10 to 15 m. The collected samples&nbsp;were subjected to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy test to indicate the percentages of the main oxides in the samples.&nbsp;The results showed that the chemical composition of samples No. 1 and 9 meet the Iraqi standards for cement industry,&nbsp;whereas the remaining samples (Nos. 2–8) do not meet the Iraqi standards, and their total thickness is 80 m. To evaluate the&nbsp;suitability of the exposed rocks for cement industry in the sampled section within the Pila Spi Formation, different ratios of&nbsp;sample No. 1 were mixed with different ratios of a sample called sample No. A, it represents a mixture of samples No. 2–8.&nbsp;The mixing ratios are: (Sample No. 1/sample No. A) 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, and 90/10. The same procedure was&nbsp;repeated for Sample No. 9. Another attempt was performed by mixing equal ratios of samples Nos. 1 and 9 with the same&nbsp;performed ratios with sample No. A.The chemical compositions of the samples were indicated using XRF test. The results&nbsp;showed that the best mixing ratios for the cement industry are 90:10, 80:20, and 70: 30 (samples Nos. 1+9: sample No. A).</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian, Dalyia A. Hamoodi, Hassan O. Omer, Sazan A. Nyazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Synthesis of Zeolite Na-LSX from Iraqi Natural Kaolin using Alkaline Fusion Prior to Hydrothermal Synthesis Technique <p>The synthesis of zeolite materials by hydrothermal transformation of kaolin using an alkaline fusion prior to hydrothermal synthesis method was investigated. The kaolin clay used in the present investigation was supplied from Iraq. The physical and chemical characterization of&nbsp; the&nbsp; starting kaolin and produced zeolite Na-LSX samples were carried&nbsp; out&nbsp; using&nbsp; different analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), X – Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). An alkaline fusion method was introduced prior to the hydrothermal treatment while kaolin clay powder was mixed manually with NaOH powder (ratio = 1/1.2 in weight). The metakaolinisation phase was achieved by calcining the mixture in air at 600 <sup>o</sup>C for 1hr. The result from this route shows that zeolite Na-LSX with cubic rounded edge crystal habit have been successfully synthesised. Finally, The kinetic study indicated the suitability of the zeolite Na-LSX for the removal of Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>3+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> ions from synthetic wastewater.</p> Ali Mohammed Salih, Craig Williams, Polla Khanaqa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Transmission Control Protocol Performance Monitoring for Simulated Wired University Computer Network using OPNET <p>Computer networks need protocols to govern all transmission and presentation processes. The transmission control&nbsp;protocol (TCP) is one of the most important protocols that have the compatibility to work with all types of computer&nbsp;networks, overcoming all architectural and operating system differences. Nowadays, networks depend on the TCP&nbsp;protocol to control data flow between all types of connected computers, whether it is client or server, over any type of&nbsp;media whether it is wired or wireless networks, for all network topologies. A simulation of a university campus network&nbsp;has been conducted to determine TCP protocol features; those features are taken into consideration as one of the most&nbsp;important network parameters. In all digital networks, the data transmission is not a continuous transmission – instead, it&nbsp;is a discreet transmission, presenting itself as packets. These packets transfer and propagate within the network between&nbsp;computers, and network nodes using the TCP protocol depending on the address, which is embedded in its header. TCP&nbsp;has a great influence on the network speed. The network simulator OPNET provides an easy way of campus design,&nbsp;predicting, and estimating the performance of networks in a university campus environment. In this research, wired<br>connections reach all computer network users at fixed points to maintain higher Mbps and ensure reliable communications&nbsp;between all the campus network nodes, as well as to increase the overall network performance taking into account the&nbsp;future expansions for the university campus network design.</p> Ammar Hasan, Tarik A. Rashid, Birzo Ismael, Nawzad K. AL-Salihi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Use of Camouflaged Cell Phone Towers for a Quality Urban Environment <p>The widespread use of cell phones has led to cell phone towers being located in many communities. These towers, also&nbsp;called base stations, incorporate electronic equipment and antennas that receive and transmit radiofrequency signals. Along with the towers, used for TV and line of sight microwave communication, the proliferation of these base stations&nbsp;is having a detrimental effect on urban esthetics. It is highly recommended for developing urban areas to consider&nbsp;the problem of these unsightly towers as a form of visual pollution, which increases in parallel with the rise of human&nbsp;population density, and also, the possible electromagnetic field (EMF) hazard due to the existence of the cell phone&nbsp;towers in the residential areas. This paper presents the feasibility of using camouflaged cell phone towers to improve&nbsp;the quality of the urban environment. Cell phone towers disguised as trees might address the visual pollution, while, at&nbsp;the same time, might also mitigate the possible EMF hazard by installing these disguised towers in free spaces, rather&nbsp;than on the roof of buildings, schools, hospitals, etc. The feasibility of implementing such a scenario for a quality urban&nbsp;environment in Koya city is discussed.</p> Salah I. Yahya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation of the Pre-Treatment for Reducing Salt and Sediments in Khurmala Oil Field <p>Oil produced in most of the oil fields is accompanied by water in the form of an emulsion that must be treated. This water normally contains dissolved salts, principally chlorides of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. If crude oil is left without treatment, the salt will cause various operational problems. This research investigates experimentally the effect of major factors on the efficiency of the desalting process for a Khurmala crude oil in Kurdistan Region. These factors are chemical treatment, PH value of water, temperature and pressure drop. One of the factors is systematically varied when the others are constant and the efficiency is analyzed. It was found that the best desalter efficiency can be concluded when the embreak dosage is 100 ppm, PH of wash water 6.5 in average, the optimum temperature is 55°C and pressure drop of mixing valve is 1.5 bars and the best desalter efficiency was in acidified condition.</p> Maha Raoof Abdulamir Hamoudi, Akram Humoodi AbdulWahhab, Sirwan Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Comparative Study of Cryotherapy versus Trichloroacetic Acid Chemical Peels in the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis <p>Actinic keratosis is cutaneous neoplasm which is including of expansion of cytologically unusual epidermal keratinocytes that grow in response to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Since some percentage of actinic keratosis will develop to non-melanoma skin cancers, their treatment is recommended. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy in comparison to topical 25% trichloroacetic acid chemical peels in the treatment of actinic keratosis. A comparative therapeutic study was conducted on forty four patients with actinic keratosis who attended Erbil dermatology teaching center in Erbil city of Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: cryotherapy treatment with liquid nitrogen every two weeks and trichloroacetic acid peels every two weeks and the response was controlled on follow up by taking photos. Patient’s age ranged from 40 to 80 years, they were analyzed for 24 weeks. Good response rate was seen in 72.8% of cryotherapy group and 40.9% of trichloroacetic acid group and this was statistically significant (p=0.02). &nbsp;Cryotherapy was more effective than trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of actinic keratosis.</p> Hawar J. Sabir, Intiha M. Ridha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Issues and Challenges Facing Low Latency in Tactile Internet <p>Tactile Internet is considered as the next step towards a revolutionary impact on the society, this is due to the introduction of different types of applications mainly the haptic ones that require strict Quality of Service guarantee especially in terms of latency. This would be a major challenge towards the design of new communication technologies and protocols in order to provide ultra-low latency. This article discusses the diverse technologies, communication protocols, and the necessary infrastructure to provide low latency based principally on the fifth generation (5G) of mobile network that is considered as the key enablers of the Tactile Internet. Furthermore, current research direction along with future challenges and open issues are discussed extensively.</p> Tara I. Yahiya, Pinar Kirci ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300