UKH Journal of Social Sciences 2019-08-15T02:55:51+03:00 Prof. Tarik A. Rashid Open Journal Systems <p><em>UKH Journal of Social Sciences</em>&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences. UKHJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: <em>Articles</em>, <em>Review Articles</em>, and <em>Letters</em>. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="">10.25079/issn.2520-7806</a>. </strong><em>UKHJSS</em> is a&nbsp;member of the DOAJ.</p> The Growing Phenomenon of Street Children in Tehran 2019-08-15T02:55:51+03:00 Habeeb A. Salihu <p>This study examines the increasing phenomenon of street children in Tehran. It focuses on the challenges and risks these&nbsp;children encounter and the overall implications on the general populace and the country as a whole. The study adopted&nbsp;both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were qualitative design (face-to-face interview). The&nbsp;population include all street children in Tehran. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select a total of&nbsp;3725 street children for this research. Information gathered was coded, categorized and analyzed using EZ Test Software&nbsp;to quantify the results and demonstrate the frequency of responses to the open-ended questions relating to the research&nbsp;interest. The study found that there are two categories of street children in Tehran (children of the street and children&nbsp;on the street), they experience several challenges such as extortion, exploitation, rape, and harassment. Furthermore,&nbsp;they engage in different activities to get money or survive. The study concludes that disrupted socioeconomic structure&nbsp;of families and the influx of different categories of people into the cities are the major causes of the phenomenon. The study, therefore, recommends that addressing the socioeconomic challenges should be the first approach toward ending&nbsp;the menace.</p> 2019-03-01T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigating the Relationship between Working Capital Management and Stock Price Crash Risk 2019-08-15T02:55:47+03:00 Ebrahim Mansoori Masood Elyasi Rahim Mohammadi <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of working capital management on stock price crash risk. The sample includes 103 Iranian firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2013 to 2017. Panel data analysis with fixed effect estimation has been used to analyze the relationship between working capital management and stock price crash risk. Cash conversion cycle, working capital requirement, current, and quick ratios were applied as comprehensive measures for working capital management, and Hutton’s model was applied as a measure for stock price crash risk. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between working capital indicators and stock price crash risk. Therefore, managers can use working capital strategies to decrease the risk of the stock price crash. Furthermore, asymmetry information may, in fact, increase a manager’s incentive to use working capital strategies to reduce the stock price crash risk.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How Information and Communications Technology Affects the Performance of Human Resources Management in the Higher Education? 2019-08-15T02:55:39+03:00 Dilber Yousifi Nabaz T. Khayyat <p>In today’s business, effective human resources management (HRM) plays an important role in organizations to cope&nbsp;with competition. Human capital plays a significant role in achieving competitive advantage. Hence, it is recommended for organizations to adapt HRM practices to reach the optimal level of employees’ performance. On the other hand,&nbsp;the information and communications technology (ICT) has become the backbone of numerous modern organizations&nbsp;in processing their business operations and activities. HRM has also been affected by the tremendous increase of ICT&nbsp;usage within the organization. The World Wide Web has transformed the human resources practices, for example, human&nbsp;resource planning, recruitment, selection, performance management, work flow, training, and compensation. This paper&nbsp;investigates the impact of ICT on HRM performance in the higher education sector in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI).&nbsp;In doing so, an empirical study based on survey questionnaire is conducted to gain a clear overview of where the higher&nbsp;education institutions stand in KRI in terms of the usage of ICT in the HRM field. The overall finding is that ICT may have<br>a positive impact on the performance level of HRM staff in the higher education institutions in KRI. Furthermore, the level of ICT usage in KRI is not in a level where the individuals of HRM are well aware of ICT developments and E-HRM&nbsp;as well as the usage of computerized HRM.</p> 2019-06-18T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Service Quality Influence Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty 2019-08-15T02:55:29+03:00 Abdul Rashid Varsha Rokade <p>Study is aimed at measuring dimensions of Retail Service Quality that has an impact on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in organized Food and Grocery Retail shoppers of Bhopal City in central India. Data was collected from 216 food and grocery customers using Convenience Sampling technique through Structured Questionnaire. IBM SPSS 16 software for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Smart PLS 3.2.6 software for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used to analyse and validate the Path Model. The SEM results reveal that three factors viz. Physical Aspects, Price and Payment do not have a significant positive influence on Customer Satisfaction. Also, Customer Satisfaction has significant positive influence on Customer Loyalty. The study offers opportunities to organized Food and Grocery Retailers in Central India to focus on these Service Quality Dimensions while formulating strategies for gaining competitive advantage, attracting new customer and at the same time retain old customers by enhancing Customer satisfaction and Customer Loyalty.</p> 2019-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The European Unions’ International Relations 2019-08-15T02:54:08+03:00 Hayman A. Hma Salah <p>This article explores major theoretical approaches to the study of European integration, European Union (EU) as a global&nbsp;power, and the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy. The argument presented here is that only a combination of both&nbsp;International Relations and European integration approaches will allow us to understand the very premises of the European&nbsp;integration project in terms of both internal and external – international-aspects. This approach will be complementary&nbsp;to the attempts by researchers those who call to mainstream European studies and an appeal in favor of abounding&nbsp;the project of conceptualizing the EU as a single case or as being Sui generis. This article argues that, despite serious&nbsp;attempts by scholars of the field of European studies, it seems difficult to theorize European integration. The established&nbsp;literature to the existing political entities seems less relevant to study EU due to the union’s unique identity. Theories&nbsp;of EU integration are unable to explain or predict the process of integration, but they are normally outpaced by events.</p> 2019-06-29T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toward Increased Professionalism in Teaching English as a Second or Other Language through Pre-service Trainee Teacher Mentoring in the United Arab Emirates 2019-08-15T02:55:50+03:00 Anthony Jonathan Solloway <p>For a variety of reasons, both historical and sociological, the feasibility – as well as the very desirability – of mainstream teaching securing the status of a profession (in the sense of established professions such as law, medicine, architecture, and engineering) has long been questioned (e.g., Burbules and Densmore, 1991). If this is the case as regard regular, mainstream education, what then is the situation in relation to the subfield of teaching that is teaching English as a second or other language (TESOL)? Sadly, few if any would likely doubt that the field has so far failed to achieve the status of a recognized profession. There are numerous causes of this failure, though some especially salient reasons – less than stellar public perceptions of the fields of English as a second language/English as a foreign language, employment standards of the private sector, that is, the (in) famous English language teaching industry, the initial training and qualifications of those in the field, and discriminatory practices – will be highlighted in the following discussion. In addition, the second half of this paper draws and reflects on a trainee teacher mentoring scheme at a federally-sponsored institution of higher education in the United Arab Emirates – now sadly discontinued – which the author participated in for 3 years between 2011 and 2015, and which, it is argued, exemplified programs which can go some not inconsiderable way toward combatting a number of the obstacles currently preventing the field of TESOL achieving the status of a legitimate profession.</p> 2019-05-22T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Political Stability and Security Status 2019-08-15T02:55:51+03:00 Ribaz Chato Biro <p>Political stability and security have become important factors of sustainable economic progress for the developing&nbsp;countries, especially states with the experience of war and instability. Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) as a semi-autonomous&nbsp;region tried to improve the level of political stability and security status, to gain more foreign direct investment (FDI)&nbsp;and economic growth. Consequently, KRI has become the safest region in Iraq and enjoyed political stability and safety.&nbsp;Therefore, during the last decade, KRI has occurred as a new destination of FDI in the Middle East and has received&nbsp;notable progress in most of the economic sectors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of political stability and&nbsp;security status on the FDI attractions and their consequences on economic development. However, it will investigate&nbsp;the factors that make the KRI safer than the rest of Iraq.</p> 2019-05-22T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality Assurance and Accreditation at University of Kurdistan Hewler 2019-08-15T02:55:10+03:00 Sherwan Kafoor <p>The University of Kurdistan Hewler (UKH) attained accreditation from the Accreditation Service of International Schools, Colleges &amp; Universities (ASIC) based in the United Kingdome (UK) on 19th of December 2018. Achieving accreditation was the conclusion of a two-year comprehensive internal audit, conducted as a self-assessment process by the Office of Quality Assurance and Accreditation (QA&amp;A) in the UKH.&nbsp;The purpose of this review is to explore if the existing quality assurance status at UKH met the requirement of ASIC criteria for the attainment of international accreditation. The process included a qualitative study and documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The accreditation process revealed that the quality areas of learning and teaching, course delivery, quality assurance and enhancement, premises and Health &amp; Safety, student welfare, management and staff resources, and marketing &amp; recruitment, are significantly efficient.</p> 2019-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Parallels between Kurdish and Central European Historical Formations 2019-08-15T02:54:09+03:00 Adam Mayer <p>It is my impression that Kurdish people often think of the lives, mores and life-worlds in Europe and the Middle East in terms of a dichotomy, or even as complete opposites. In my letter, I would like to draw readers’ attention to historical parallels, links and commonalities between medieval Kurdish worlds and those in medieval and early Modern Central Europe, especially in the case of Hungary.</p> 2019-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Value Driven Foreign Policy in South Asia, and its Lessons for the West Asian Region 2019-08-15T02:54:07+03:00 Eszter Lukács <p>India during the long rule of the Nehru-Gandhi ‘dynasty’ aptly practiced realist foreign policy in the regional theatre and globally, but fell short of representing specifically Indian cultural values. Since the early 1990s, India’s foreign policy has regained its identity. Today, under Prime Minister Narendra Damodardas Modi, India assertively stands for its heritage in foreign policy. This is a practice that has relevance for the entire West Asian region, including the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> 2019-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##