UKH Journal of Social Sciences <p><em>UKH Journal of Social Sciences</em>&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences. UKHJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong>10.25079/issn.2520-7806.</strong></p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> (Dr. Sherwan Kafoor) (Prof. Salah I. Yahya) Fri, 01 Mar 2019 14:58:20 +0300 OJS 60 The Growing Phenomenon of Street Children in Tehran <p>This study examines the increasing phenomenon of street children in Tehran. It focuses on the challenges and risks these&nbsp;children encounter and the overall implications on the general populace and the country as a whole. The study adopted&nbsp;both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were qualitative design (face-to-face interview). The&nbsp;population include all street children in Tehran. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select a total of&nbsp;3725 street children for this research. Information gathered was coded, categorized and analyzed using EZ Test Software&nbsp;to quantify the results and demonstrate the frequency of responses to the open-ended questions relating to the research&nbsp;interest. The study found that there are two categories of street children in Tehran (children of the street and children&nbsp;on the street), they experience several challenges such as extortion, exploitation, rape, and harassment. Furthermore,&nbsp;they engage in different activities to get money or survive. The study concludes that disrupted socioeconomic structure&nbsp;of families and the influx of different categories of people into the cities are the major causes of the phenomenon. The study, therefore, recommends that addressing the socioeconomic challenges should be the first approach toward ending&nbsp;the menace.</p> Habeeb A. Salihu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Investigating the Relationship between Working Capital Management and Stock Price Crash Risk <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of working capital management on stock price crash risk. The sample includes 103 Iranian firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2013 to 2017. Panel data analysis with fixed effect estimation has been used to analyze the relationship between working capital management and stock price crash risk. Cash conversion cycle, working capital requirement, current, and quick ratios were applied as comprehensive measures for working capital management, and Hutton’s model was applied as a measure for stock price crash risk. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between working capital indicators and stock price crash risk. Therefore, managers can use working capital strategies to decrease the risk of the stock price crash. Furthermore, asymmetry information may, in fact, increase a manager’s incentive to use working capital strategies to reduce the stock price crash risk.</p> Ebrahim Mansoori, Masood Elyasi, Rahim Mohammadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Toward Increased Professionalism in Teaching English as a Second or Other Language through Pre-service Trainee Teacher Mentoring in the United Arab Emirates <p>For a variety of reasons, both historical and sociological, the feasibility – as well as the very desirability – of mainstream teaching securing the status of a profession (in the sense of established professions such as law, medicine, architecture, and engineering) has long been questioned (e.g., Burbules and Densmore, 1991). If this is the case as regard regular, mainstream education, what then is the situation in relation to the subfield of teaching that is teaching English as a second or other language (TESOL)? Sadly, few if any would likely doubt that the field has so far failed to achieve the status of a recognized profession. There are numerous causes of this failure, though some especially salient reasons – less than stellar public perceptions of the fields of English as a second language/English as a foreign language, employment standards of the private sector, that is, the (in) famous English language teaching industry, the initial training and qualifications of those in the field, and discriminatory practices – will be highlighted in the following discussion. In addition, the second half of this paper draws and reflects on a trainee teacher mentoring scheme at a federally-sponsored institution of higher education in the United Arab Emirates – now sadly discontinued – which the author participated in for 3 years between 2011 and 2015, and which, it is argued, exemplified programs which can go some not inconsiderable way toward combatting a number of the obstacles currently preventing the field of TESOL achieving the status of a legitimate profession.</p> Anthony Jonathan Solloway ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Political Stability and Security Status <p>Political stability and security have become important factors of sustainable economic progress for the developing&nbsp;countries, especially states with the experience of war and instability. Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) as a semi-autonomous&nbsp;region tried to improve the level of political stability and security status, to gain more foreign direct investment (FDI)&nbsp;and economic growth. Consequently, KRI has become the safest region in Iraq and enjoyed political stability and safety.&nbsp;Therefore, during the last decade, KRI has occurred as a new destination of FDI in the Middle East and has received&nbsp;notable progress in most of the economic sectors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of political stability and&nbsp;security status on the FDI attractions and their consequences on economic development. However, it will investigate&nbsp;the factors that make the KRI safer than the rest of Iraq.</p> Ribaz Chato Biro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300