Utilization of Conventional Treatments and Agricultural Wastes as Low-Cost Adsorbents for Removal of Lead Ions from Wastewater
This study reviewed the most common methods for removing lead ions from industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater. Most of the research done was reviewed using traditional methods such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, oxidation, evaporation, electric-dialysis, membrane filtration, and solvent extraction. These operations were related to several restrictions, that comprised the treatments to be limited to a definite concentration of the Lead (II) ions. Similarly, disadvantages complicated the production of huge quantities of dangerous waste although very high costs. This means these operations were very costly. For these reasons, to utilize the agricultural waste and low-cost adsorbents operation can be considered as eco-friendly. Currently, agricultural waste and natural materials are present in a huge quantity, and that is very damaging to the environment. Therefore, adsorption is an alternate operation for eliminating Lead (II) ions. According to the increased quality of adsorption operations, like the properties of improved adsorptive, increase availability, and cost-effectiveness, the operation is economical option for eliminating Lead(II) ions.
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