Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Patients with Cancer

  • Zahraa Qusairy Department of Pharmacy, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Al Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, F. R. Iraq
  • Miran Rada Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8220-7982
Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Cancer, Dexamethasone, Tocilizumab, Remdesivir, Convalescent plasma therapy

Abstract

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has appeared to be one of the biggest global health threats worldwide with no specific therapeutic agents. As of August 2020, over 22.4 million confirmed cases and more than 788,000 deaths have been reported globally, and the toll is expected to increase before the pandemic is over. Given the aggressive nature of their underlying disease, cancer patients seem to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 and various studies have confirmed this hypothesis. Herein, we review the current information regarding the role of cancer in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Moreover, we discuss the effective supportive treatment options for COVID-19 including Dexamethasone, Tocilizumab and Remdesivir and convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), as well as discuss their efficacy in COVID-19 patients with cancer.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Zahraa Qusairy, Department of Pharmacy, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Al Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, F. R. Iraq

Zahraa Qusairy is a Master holder in Pharmacy. She works the Department of Pharmacy, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Al Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, F. R. Iraq.

Miran Rada, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Miran Rada: is a PhD holder. Currently works at the Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

References

Addeo, A., Obeid, M. & Friedlaender, A. (2020). COVID-19 and lung cancer: risks, mechanisms and treatment interactions. Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer, 8(1), 1–7. doi: 10.1136/jitc-2020-000892.

Afshar, Z. M., Dayani, M., Naderi, M., Ghanbarveisi, F., Shiri, S. & Rajatif, F. (2020). Fatality rate of COVID-19 in patients with malignancies: a sytematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Infection, 12(30), 1–3.

Al-Quteimat, O. M. & Amer, A. M. (2020). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cancer Patients. American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, 00(00), 1–4. doi: 10.1097/COC.0000000000000712.

Alattar, R., Ibrahim, T. B. H., Shaar, S. H., Abdalla, S., Shukri, K., Daghfal, J. N., Khatib, M. Y., Aboukamar, M.,

Abukhattab, M., Alsoub, H. A., Almaslamani, M. A. & Omrani, A. S. (2020). Tocilizumab for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of Medical Virology, April. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25964.

Alhalabi, O. & Subbiah, V. (2020). Managing Cancer Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond. Trends in Cancer, xx(xx), 1–3. doi: 10.1016/j.trecan.2020.04.005.

Arabi, Y. M., Mandourah, Y., Al-Hameed, F., Sindi, A. A., Almekhlafi, G. A., Hussein, M. A., Jose, J., Pinto, R., Al-Omari,

A., Kharaba, A., Almotairi, A., Al Khatib, K., Alraddadi, B., Shalhoub, S., Abdulmomen, A., Qushmaq, I., Mady, A., Mady,

O., Al-Aithan, A. M., … Fowler, R. A. (2018). Corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with middle east respiratory syndrome. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 197(6), 757–767. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201706-1172OC.

Ascierto, P. A., Fox, B., Urba, W., Anderson, A. C., Atkins, M. B., Borden, E. C., Brahmer, J., Butterfield, L. H., Cesano,

A., Chen, D., De Gruijl, T., Dillman, R. O., Drake, C. G., Emens, L. A., Gajewski, T. F., Gulley, J. L., Stephen Hodi, F.,

Hwu, P., Kaufman, D., … Weber, J. S. (2020). Insights from immuno-oncology: The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Statement on access to IL-6-targeting therapies for COVID-19. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, 8(1), 1–2. doi: 10.1136/jitc-2020-000878.

Baden, L. R. & Rubin, E. J. (2020). Covid-19 - The search for effective therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(19), 1851–1852. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2005477

Ballaz, S. & Mulshine, J. L. (2003). The potential contributions of chronic inflammation to lung carcinogenesis. Clinical Lung Cancer, 5(1), 46–62. doi: 10.3816/CLC.2003.n.021

Bass, J. & Ervin, C. (1919). Use of serum in the treatment of influenza-pneumonia. Naval Medical Bulletin, 71–73.

Behring, E. & Kitasato, S. (1890). Ueber das Zustandekommen der Diphtherie-Immunität und der Tetanus-Immunität bei Thieren. Dtsch. Med. Wschr, 16, 1113–1114.

Cao, Y. chen, Deng, Q. xin & Dai, S. xue. (2020). Remdesivir for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing COVID-19: An evaluation of the evidence. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 101647. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101647

Dai, M., Liu, D., Liu, M., Zhou, F., Li, G., Chen, Z., You, H., Wu, M., Zheng, Q., Xiong, Y., Xiong, H., Wang, C., Chen, C., Xiong, F., Zhang, Y., Peng, Y., Ge, S., Zhen, B., Yu, T. et al. (2020). Patients with cancer appear more vulnerable to SARS-COV-2: a multi-center study during the COVID-19 outbreak. Cancer Discovery, 10, 783–791. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0422.

Davies, M., Osborne, V., Lane, S., Roy, D., Dhanda, S., Evans, A. & Shakir, S. (2020). Remdesivir in Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Benefit–Risk Assessment. Drug Safety, 43(7), 645–656. doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-00952-1

Duan, K., Liu, B., Li, C., Zhang, H., Yu, T., Qu, J., Zhou, M., Chen, L., Meng, S., Hu, Y., Peng, C., Yuan, M., Huang, J., Wang, Z., Yu, J., Gao, X., Wang, D., Yu, X., Li, L., et al. (2020). Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(17), 9490–9496. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2004168117.

Eastman, R. T., Roth, J. S., Brimacombe, K. R., Simeonov, A., Shen, M., Patnaik, S. & Hall, M. D. (2020). Remdesivir: A Review of Its Discovery and Development Leading to Emergency Use Authorization for Treatment of COVID-19. ACS Central Science, 6, 672–683. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c00489.

Giles, A. J., Hutchinson, M. K. N. D., Sonnemann, H. M., Jung, J., Fecci, P. E., Ratnam, N. M., Zhang, W., Song, H., Bailey, R., Davis, D., Reid, C. M., Park, D. M. & Gilbert, M. R. (2018). Dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression: Mechanisms and implications for immunotherapy. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, 6(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1186/s40425-018-0371-5.

Grein, J., Ohmagari, N., Shin, D., Diaz, G., Asperges, E., Castagna, A., Feldt, T., Green, G., Green, M. L., Lescure, F. X., Nicastri, E., Oda, R., Yo, K., Quiros-Roldan, E., Studemeister, A., Redinski, J., Ahmed, S., Bernett, J., Chelliah, D., et al. (2020). Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(24), 2327–2336. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007016.

Hatzl, S., Eisner, F., Schilcher, G., Kreuzer, P., Gornicec, M., Eller, P., Brodmann, M., Schlenke, P., Stradner, M. H., Krause, R., Greinix, H. & Schulz, E. (2020). Response to “COVID-19 in persons with haematological cancers.” Leukemia, Table 1. doi: 10.1038/s41375-020-0914-x.

He, F., Deng, Y. & Li, W. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know? Journal of Medical Virology, 92(7), 719–725. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25766.

Horby, P., Lim, W., Emberson, J., Mafham, M., Bell, J., Linsell, L., Staplin, N., Brightling, C., Ustianowski, A., Elmahi, E., Prudon, B., Green, C., Felton, T., Chadwick, D., Rege, K., Fegan, C., Chappell, L. C., Faust, S. N., Jaki, T., et al. (2020). Effect of Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 – Preliminary Report. MedRxiv, 1–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.22.20137273.

Islam, A., Rafiq, S., Karim, S., Laher, I. & Rashid, H. (2020). Convalescent plasma therapy in the treatment of COVID-19: Practical considerations: Correspondence. International Journal of Surgery, 79, 204–205. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.05.079.

Jafari, A., Dadkhahfar, S. & Perseh, S. (2020). Considerations for interactions of drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19 with anti-cancer treatments. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 151, 102982. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.102982.

Joyner, M. J., Bruno, K. A., Klassen, S. A., Kunze, K. L., Johnson, P. W., Lesser, E. R., Wiggins, C. C. & Senefeld, J. W. (2020). Safety Update: COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in 20,000 Hospitalized Patients. Mayo Clinic Proceeding, 95, 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.semerg.2020.05.002.

Kewan, T., Covut, F., Al, M. J., Jaghbeer, À., Rose, L., Gopalakrishna, K. V. & Akbik, B. (2020). Tocilizumab for treatment of patients with severe COVID À 19 : A retrospective cohort study. EClinicalMedicine, 100418. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100418.

Kuderer, N. M., Choueiri, T. K., Shah, D. P., Shyr, Y., Rubinstein, S. M., Rivera, D. R., Shete, S., Hsu, C. Y., Desai, A., de Lima Lopes, G., Grivas, P., Painter, C. A., Peters, S., Thompson, M. A., Bakouny, Z., Batist, G., Bekaii-Saab, T., Bilen, M. A., Bouganim, N., et al. (2020). Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study. The Lancet, 1907–1918. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9.

Lee, D. W., Gardner, R., Porter, D. L., Louis, C. U., Ahmed, N., Jensen, M., Grupp, S. A. & Mackall, C. L. (2014). Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of cytokine release syndrome. Blood, 124(2), 188–196. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-05-552729.current.

Lee, L. Y. W., Cazier, J. B., Starkey, T., Turnbull, C. D., Kerr, R. & Middleton, G. (2020). COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer on chemotherapy or other anticancer treatments: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 395(10241), 1919–1926. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31173-9

Levi, M. (2020). Tocilizumab for severe COVID-19: A promising intervention affecting inflammation and coagulation. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 76, 21–22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2020.05.018.

Liang, W., Guan, W., Chen, R., Wang, W., Li, J., Xu, K., Li, C., Ai, Q., Lu, W., Liang, H., Li, S. & He, J. (2020). Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. The Lancet Oncology, 21(3), 335–337. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30096-6.

Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., Wang, W., Song, H., Huang, B., Zhu, N., Bi, Y., Ma, X., Zhan, F., Wang, L., Hu, T., Zhou, H., Hu, Z., Zhou, W., Zhao, L., et al. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet, 395(10224), 565–574. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8

Luke, T. C., Casadevall, A., Watowich, S. J., Hoffman, S. L., Beigel, J. H. & Burgess, T. H. (2010). Hark back: Passive immunotherapy for influenza and other serious infections. Critical Care Medicine, 38(SUPPL. 4). doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181d44c1e

Mehta, V., Goel, S., Kabarriti, R., Cole, D., Goldfinger, M., Acuna-Villaorduna, A., Pradhan, K., Thota, R., Reissman, S., Sparano, J. A., Gartrell, B. A., Smith, R. V., Ohri, N., Garg, M., Racine, A. D., Kalnicki, S., Perez-Soler, R., Halmos, B. & Verma, A. (2020). Case Fatality Rate of Cancer Patients with COVID-19 in a New York Hospital System. Cancer Discovery. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.cd-20-0516.

Meng, L., Qiu, H., Wan, L., Ai, Y., Xue, Z., Guo, Q., Deshpande, R. & Zhang, L. (2020). Intubation and Ventilation amid the COVID-19 outbreak. Anesthesiology, 132, 1317–1332. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000003296

Miyashita, H., Mikami, T., Chopra, N., Yamada, T., Chernyavsky, S., Rizk, D. & Cruz, C. (2020). Do patients with cancer have a poorer prognosis of COVID-19? An experience in New York City. Annals of Oncology, xxx, 2019–2020. doi: 10.1016/j.annonc.2020.04.006

Patel, R., Park, J., Shah, A. & Saif, M. W. (2020). COVID-19 and Cancer Patients. Cancer Medicine, 3(1), 40–48. doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0061-4.

Ragab, D., Eldin, H. S., Taeimah, M. & Khattab, R. (2020). The COVID-19 Cytokine Storm ; What We Know So Far. Frontiers in Immunology, 11(June), 1–4. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01446.

Rajendran, K., Narayanasamy, K., Rangarajan, J., Rathinam, J., Natarajan, M. & Ramachandran, A. (2020). Convalescent plasma transfusion for the treatment of COVID-19: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Virology, April, 1–9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25961.

Redden, W. (1919). Treatment of Influenza-Pneumonia by Use of Convalescent Human Serum. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 161, 688–691.

Rogado, J., Pangua, C., Serrano-montero, G., Obispo, B., Martín, A., Pérez-pérez, M., López-alfonso, A., Gullón, P. & Ángel, M. (2020). Covid-19 and lung cancer: A greater fatality rate? Lung Cancer, 146, 19–22.

Rojas, M., Rodríguez, Y., Monsalve, D. M., Acosta-Ampudia, Y., Camacho, B., Gallo, J. E., Rojas-Villarraga, A., Ramírez-Santana, C., Díaz-Coronado, J. C., Manrique, R., Mantilla, R. D., Shoenfeld, Y. & Anaya, J. M. (2020). Convalescent plasma in Covid-19: Possible mechanisms of action. Autoimmunity Reviews, April, 102554. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102554.

Russell, C. D., Millar, J. E., & Baillie, J. K. (2020). Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. The Lancet, 395(10223), 473–475. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30317-2.

Sanborn, G. P. (1920). The Use of the Serum of Convalescents in the Treatment of Influenza Pneumonia: A Summary of the Results in a Series of One Hundred and One Cases. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 183, 171–177.

Sekine, Y., Katsura, H., Koh, E., Hiroshima, K. & Fujisawa, T. (2012). Early detection of COPD is important for lung cancer surveillance. European Respiratory Journal, 39(5), 1230–1240. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00126011.

Shen, C., Wang, Z., Zhao, F., Yang, Y., Li, J., Yuan, J., Wang, F., Li, D., Yang, M., Xing, L., Wei, J., Xiao, H., Yang, Y., Qu, J., Qing, L., Chen, L., Xu, Z., Peng, L., Li, Y., et al. (2020). Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 with Convalescent Plasma. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(16), 1582–1589. doi: doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4783.

Singh, A. K., Singh, A., Singh, R. & Misra, A. (2020). Remdesivir in COVID-19: A critical review of pharmacology, pre-clinical and clinical studies. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(4), 641–648. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.018.

Smolen, J. S., Beaulieu, A., Rubbert-Roth, A., Ramos-Remus, C., Rovensky, J., Alecock, E., Woodworth, T. & Alten, R. (2008). Effect of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition with tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (OPTION study): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. The Lancet, 371(9617), 987–997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60453-5.

Thng, Z. X., De Smet, M. D., Lee, C. S., Gupta, V., Smith, J. R., McCluskey, P. J., McCluskey, P. J., Thorne, J. E., Kempen, J. H., Kempen, J. H., Zierhut, M., Nguyen, Q. D., Pavesio, C., Agrawal, R. & Agrawal, R. (2020). COVID-19 and immunosuppression: A review of current clinical experiences and implications for ophthalmology patients taking immunosuppressive drugs. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1–5. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316586.

Tian, J., Yuan, X., Xiao, J., Zhong, Q., Yang, C., Liu, B., Cai, Y., Lu, Z., Wang, J., Wang, Y., Liu, S., Cheng, B., Wang, J., Zhang, M., Wang, L., Niu, S., Yao, Z., Deng, X., Zhou, F., et al. (2020). Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. The Lancet Oncology, 2045(20), 1–11. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30309-0.

Van de Haar, J., Hoes, L. R., Coles, C. E., Seamon, K., Fröhling, S., Jäger, D., Valenza, F., de Braud, F., De Petris, L., Bergh, J., Ernberg, I., Besse, B., Barlesi, F., Garralda, E., Piris-Giménez, A., Baumann, M., Apolone, G., Soria, J. C., Tabernero, J., et al. (2020). Caring for patients with cancer in the COVID-19 era. Nature Medicine, 26(5), 665–671. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0874-8

Venkiteshwaran, A. (2009). Tocilizumab. 1(5), 432–438.

Villar, J., Ferrando, C., Martínez, D., Ambrós, A., Muñoz, T., Soler, J. A., Aguilar, G., Alba, F., González-Higueras, E., Conesa, L. A., Martín-Rodríguez, C., Díaz-Domínguez, F. J., Serna-Grande, P., Rivas, R., Ferreres, J., Belda, J., Capilla, L., Tallet, A., Añón, J. M., et al. (2020). Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(3), 267–276. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30417-5.

Vuagnat, P., Frelaut, M., Ratohul, T., Basse, C., Diakite, S., Noret, A. & Bellesoeur, A. (2020). COVID-19 in breast cancer patients: a cohort at the Institut Curie hospitals in Paris area. Breast Cancer Research, 22(55), 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s13058-020-01293-8.

Wang, H. & Zhang, L. (2020). Risk of COVID-19 for patients with cancer. Lancet Oncology, 21(4), e181. doi: doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30149-2

Wang, M., Cao, R., Zhang, L., Yang, X., Liu, J., Xu, M., Shi, Z., Hu, Z., Zhong, W. & Xiao, G. (2020). Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research, 30(3), 269–271. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0.

Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Du, G., Du, R., Zhao, J., Jin, Y., Fu, S., Gao, L., Cheng, Z., Lu, Q., Hu, Y., Luo, G., Wang, K., Lu, Y., Li, H., Wang, S., Ruan, S., Yang, C., Mei, C., et al. (2020). Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. The Lancet, 395(10236), 1569–1578. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9.

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. WHO 2020. (n.d.).

Wu, C., Chen, X., Cai, Y., Xia, J., Zhou, X., Xu, S., Huang, H., Zhang, L., Zhou, X., Du, C., Zhang, Y., Song, J., Wang, S., Chao, Y., Yang, Z., Xu, J., Zhou, X., Chen, D., Xiong, W., et al. (2020). Risk Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Internal Medicine, 1–10. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994

Wu, R., Wang, L., Kuo, H. C. D., Shannar, A., Peter, R., Chou, P. J., Li, S., Hudlikar, R., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Poiani, G. J., Amorosa, L., Brunetti, L. & Kong, A. N. (2020). An Update on Current Therapeutic Drugs Treating COVID-19. Current Pharmacology Reports, 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s40495-020-00216-7

Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. Report of Clustering Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan City. 2019. http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/ front/web/showDetail/2019123108989. Accessed December 31, 2019. (n.d.).

Yang, K., Sheng, Y., Huang, C., Jin, Y., Xiong, N., Jiang, K., Lu, H., Liu, J., Yang, J., Dong, Y., Pan, D., Shu, C., Li, J., Wei, J., Huang, Y., Peng, L., Wu, M., Zhang, R., Wu, B., et al. (2020). Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors for mortality in patients with cancer and COVID-19 in Hubei, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. The Lancet Oncology, 2045(20), 1–10. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30310-7.

Ye, M., Fu, D., Ren, Y., Wang, F., Wang, D., Zhang, F., Xia, X. & Lv, T. (2020). Treatment with convalescent plasma for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China. Journal of Medical Virology. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25882.

Ye, Z., Wang, Y., Colunga-Lozano, L. E., Prasad, M., Tangamornsuksan, W., Rochwerg, B., Yao, L., Motaghi, S., Couban, R. J., Ghadimi, M., Bala, M. M., Gomaa, H., Fang, F., Xia, Y. & Guyat, G. H. (2020). Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 based on evidence for COVID-19, other coronavirus infections, influenza, community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1–12.

Yeoh, C. B., Lee, K. J., Rieth, E. F., Mapes, R., Tchoudovskaia, A. V., Fischer, G. W. & Tollinche, L. E. (2020). COVID-19 in the Cancer Patient. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 131(1), 16–23. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000004884.

Zeng, Q.-L., Yu, Z.-J., Gou, J.-J., Li, G.-M., Ma, S.-H., Zhang, G.-F., Xu, J.-H., Lin, W.-B., Cui, G.-L., Zhang, M.-M., Li, C., Wang, Z.-S., Zhang, Z.-H. & Liu, Z.-S. (2020). Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Viral Shedding and Survival in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 222, 38–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa228.

Zhang, B., Liu, S., Tan, T., Huang, W., Dong, Y., Chen, L., Chen, Q., Zhang, L., Zhong, Q., Zhang, X., Zou, Y. & Zhang, S. (2020). Treatment With Convalescent Plasma for Critically Ill Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection. Chest, e1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.039.

Zhang, L., Zhu, F., Xie, L., Wang, C., Wang, J., Chen, R., Jia, P., Guan, H. Q., Peng, L., Chen, Y., Peng, P., Zhang, P., Chu, Q., Shen, Q., Wang, Y., Xu, S. Y., Zhao, J. P. & Zhou, M. (2020). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients: a retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China. Annals of Oncology, 31(7). doi: 10.1016/j.annonc.2020.03.296.

Zhou, P., Yang, X. Lou, Wang, X. G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., Si, H. R., Zhu, Y., Li, B., Huang, C. L., Chen, H. D., Chen, J., Luo, Y., Guo, H., Jiang, R. Di, Liu, M. Q., Chen, Y., Shen, X. R., Wang, X., et al. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270–273. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R., Niu, P., Zhan, F., Ma, X., Wang, D., Xu, W., Wu, G., Gao, G. F. & Tan, W. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), 727–733. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.
Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
Qusairy, Z., & Rada, M. (2020, December 31). Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Patients with Cancer. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v4n2y2020.pp119-126
Section
Review Articles
Share |