The Status of Mosul Dam, NW of Iraq
Mosul Dam is located in the northwestern part of Iraq impounding the Tigris River; about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. The dam is 113 m high and 3650 m long including the spillway. The dam is earth fill type with a mud core. The dam was designed to impound 11.11 km3 because it is based and underlain by gypsum beds alternated with limestone and marl. Therefore, it is planned to use continuous grouting to fill the karst caverns. The used quantity exceeded 95000 tons of solid grouting materials since 1986 up to 2014. After all, is the dam safe? The details are given in the current article.
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Issa, E.I. & Knutsson, S. (2015). Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Problems Encountered During and After Impounding the Reservoir. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 5(3), 47–58. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/publication/275949182.
Al-Ansari, N., Issa, E.I., Sissakian, V.K., Adamo, N. & Knutsson, S. (2015a). Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: The project. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 5(3), 15–31. Retrieved from www.academia.edu/12458385/ Mystery_of_Mosul_Dam.
Al-Ansari, N.A., Adamo, N., Issa, I.E., Sissakian, V. & Knutsson, S. (2015b). Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Karstification and Sinkholes. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 5, 33–45. Retrieved from www.scienpress.com/Upload/GEO/Vol 5_3_3.pdf.
Bonacci, O., Gottstein, S. & Roja- Bonacci, T. (2009). Negative impacts of grouting on the underground karst environment. Echohydrology, 2(4), 492–502. Retrieved from www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/13/2041/2013/nhess-13-2041-2013.pdf.
Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources (2012). Water Resources, Mosul Dam. Retrieved from https:// www.mowr. gov.iq/en.
Issa, E.I., Al-Ansari, N.A. & Knutsson, S. (2013). Changes in Bed Morphology of Mosul Dam Reservoir. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, 3(2), 86–95. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/publication/246545981.
IWPDC (International Water Power and Dam Construction) (2011). An unprecedented task 3 November 2011. Retrieved from https://www.waterpowermagazine.com/features/featurean-unprecedented-task.
Kelley, J. R., et al. (2007). Geologic Setting of Mosul Dam and its Engineering Implications. USACE, Engineering Research and Development Center. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a472047.
Mark & Wheeler (2004). Mosul Dam Assessment. Task Order No. 8, Report on Site Visit. Mosul Dam Library, 3–7 September, 2004.
Merino, E., Banerjee, A. & Dworkin, S. (2006). Dust, terra rossa, replacement, and karst: serendipitous geodynamics in the critical zone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(18), A416. Retrieved from www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/dust-terra-rossa.
Milillo, P. et al. (2016). Space Geodetic Monitoring of Engineered Structures: The Ongoing Destabilization of the Mosul Dam, Iraq. Scientific Reports, 6, Article No. 37408. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37408. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37408.
Sissakian, V.K. & Fouad, S.F. (2015). Geological Map of Iraq, scale 1:1000000 (4th ed.). Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 11(1), 9–16.
Sissakian, V., Adamao, N., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2017). Defects in Foundation Design Due to Miss-Interpretation of the Geological Data. A Case Study of Mosul Dam. Scientific Research, Engineering, 9(7), 1–15. Retrieved from http://file.scirp.org/Html/5-8102857_78053.htm.
Swiss consultants (1979). Mosul Dam Project-planning report. State Organization of Dams, Republic of Iraq, Ministry of Irrigation, Vol. 1. Report Library of Mosul Dam.
Wakeley, L.D., Kelley, J.R., Talbot, C.A., Pearson, M.L. & Broadfoot, S.W. (2007). Geologic Conceptual Model of Mosul Dam. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. 61pp. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235070116_Geologic_Conceptual_Model_of_Mosul_Dam.
Washington Group International, Black & Veatch, J. V. (2005). Mosul Dam Study. Final Report, Task Order No. 8. Republic of Iraq Project Contracting Office, Provisional Coalition Authority.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).