Karstification Problems in the Haditha Dam, West Iraq

  • Varoujan K. Sissakian Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9840-5422
  • Nasrat Adamo Dams Engineer and Consultant, Norrköping, Sweden
  • Nadhir Al-Ansari Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden
  • Jan Leaue Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden
  • Sven Knutsson Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden
Keywords: Haditha Dam, Karstification, Grouting, Grout Curtain, Sinkholes, Euphrates River.

Abstract

Haditha Dam is constructed on the Euphrates River in the western part of Iraq completed in 1988 and located 14 km west of Haditha town. Haditha Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete dam with a total length of 9064 m. The maximum height of the dam is 57 m from the deepest point at the river channel and dam crest level is 154.00 m (a.s.l.). The storage capacity is 6×109 m3 at normal operation water level of 143 m (a.s.l.). The exposed formations in the dam site and reservoir area are the Euphrates (Lower Miocene) and Fatha (Middle Miocene) formations. Both formations are well known in Iraq to be karstified at different intensities. The right bank of the Euphrates River is severely karstified with tens of sinkholes of different shapes, dimensions and activities. The presence of the karstified rocks is the main reason the dam has a very long grout curtain which extends along its entire length and includes the concrete powerhouse and spillway structure in the river channel, and the right and left bank extensions. The right bank extension of the grout curtain is exceptionally long due to the extent of the sinkhole area. Grouting was performed here in boreholes drilled at one-meter spacing to reduce water penetration and movement through the flank of the dam. The grout curtain under the embankment in the river section was done in two rows, while under the concrete structure it is comprised of three rows of holes. The left bank extension has two rows. The depths of all parts of the curtain varied following the karstification zones and intensities. The main aim of the current study is to elucidate and discuss the influence of the karstified rocks at the dam site and reservoir on the design and especially the length of the dam and the need for side extensions.

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Author Biographies

Varoujan K. Sissakian, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq

Varoujan K. Sissakian graduated from University of Baghdad in 1969 with B.Sc. degree in Geology, and M.Sc. in Engineering Geological Mapping from I.T.C., the Netherlands in 1982. He joined Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV) in 1971 and was nominated as Expert in 2005; retired on 10th of October, 2012.

He has 125 documented reports in GEOSURV's library and 145 published articles in different geological aspects in different geological journals and 36 articles in different stages of publications.

He was the Deputy Vice President of the Middle East Subcommission of the Committee of Compilation the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), Paris, from February 2010 until August 2012.

He was Visiting Lecturer in University of Kurdistan, Hewler, since October, 2014 and Lecturer since February, 2017.

Currently, he is a Lecturer in the University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, KRG, Iraq

[email protected], [email protected]

 

Nasrat Adamo, Dams Engineer and Consultant, Norrköping, Sweden

Dams Engineer and has contributed at different levels of works in all existing dams in Iraq.

Published tens of articles and 3 books about dams.

Nadhir Al-Ansari, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden

Professor Dr. Nadhir Al-Ansari is a well know Professor in Water Resources Engineering.

He has more than 300 published articles and 3 books.

Jan Leaue, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden

Professor Dr. Jan Leaue is specialist in Geotechnical engineering and has more than 100 published articles.

Sven Knutsson, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden

Progessor Dr. Sven is a geotechnical engineer , specialized in soil mechanics and has more than 100 published articles.

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Published
2021-06-30
How to Cite
Sissakian, V., Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Leaue, J., & Knutsson, S. (2021, June 30). Karstification Problems in the Haditha Dam, West Iraq. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1), 111-118. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v5n1y2021.pp111-118
Section
Research Articles
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