The Shanidar Cave: An Interesting Archeological Site in Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Shanidar Cave

Keywords: Neanderthal, Shanidar cave, Proto-Neolithic cemetery, Bradost mountain


Shanidar Cave is one of the most well-known caves in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It is an archaeological site located within Bradost Mountain north of Erbil city. Eleven skeletons of Neanderthals, have been found within the cave dating back to 65000 – 35000 years, they were called Shanidar (1 – 11). The cave also contains two later "proto-Neolithic" cemeteries.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Varoujan K. Sissakian, University Kurdistan, Hewler

Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq


Edward, O., 2010. The Skeletons of Shanidar Cave. Smithsonian Magazine, March 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
Erik, T., 1983. The Shanidar Neanderthals. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-7005501.
Fouad, S.F., 2012. Tectonic Map pf Iraq, scale 1:1000000, 3rd edition. Iraq Geological Survey Publications, Baghdad, Iraq.
Gargett, R.H., 1999. Middle Palaeolithic Burial is Not a Dead Issue: The View From Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh. In Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 37, p. 27– 90.
Lietava, J., 1992. Medicinal plants in a middle paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 35, No. 2, p. 263 – 266.
Pettitt, P.B., 2002. The Neanderthal Dead, exploring mortuary variability in Middle Paleolithic Eurasia.
Sissakian and Fouad, S.F., 2012. Geological Map pf Iraq, scale 1:1000000, 4th edition. Iraq Geological Survey Publications, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K. and Saeed, Z.B., 2012. Lithological Map of Iraq, Compiled using GIS Techniques. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 1 – 13.
Solecki, R.S., 1975. Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq, Science, Vol. 190, Issue 4217, p. 880 – 881.
Solecki, R.S., Solecki, R.L. and Agelarakis, A.P., 2004. The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave. Texas A&M University Press, p. 3–5.
Stewart, T.D., 1963. Shanidar Skeletons IV and VI. Sumer, Vol. 19, p. 8 – 26.
How to Cite
Sissakian, V. (2019, December 27). The Shanidar Cave: An Interesting Archeological Site in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 3(2), 1-9.
Review Articles