Assessment of the Carbonate Rocks of the Pila Spi Formation for Cement Industry, in Permam Mountain, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

  • Varoujan K. Sissakian Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9840-5422
  • Dalyia A. Hamoodi Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq
  • Hassan O. Omer Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0232-5653
  • Sazan A. Nyazi Graduated, University of Kurdistan Hewler
Keywords: Cement industry, Dolomite, Limestone, Mixing ratios

Abstract

The Pila Spi Formation is exposed in Permam Mountain forming its carapace, and continuous ridges for few hundreds of kilometers. The rocks of the formation are mainly dolomitic limestone, dolomite, and limestone with various proportions. The thickness of the formation in Permam Mountain is about 100 m. Nine samples are collected from the Pila Spi Formation along a recently road cut across Permam Mountain. The sampling interval varies from 10 to 15 m. The collected samples were subjected to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy test to indicate the percentages of the main oxides in the samples. The results showed that the chemical composition of samples No. 1 and 9 meet the Iraqi standards for cement industry, whereas the remaining samples (Nos. 2–8) do not meet the Iraqi standards, and their total thickness is 80 m. To evaluate the suitability of the exposed rocks for cement industry in the sampled section within the Pila Spi Formation, different ratios of sample No. 1 were mixed with different ratios of a sample called sample No. A, it represents a mixture of samples No. 2–8. The mixing ratios are: (Sample No. 1/sample No. A) 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, and 90/10. The same procedure was repeated for Sample No. 9. Another attempt was performed by mixing equal ratios of samples Nos. 1 and 9 with the same performed ratios with sample No. A.The chemical compositions of the samples were indicated using XRF test. The results showed that the best mixing ratios for the cement industry are 90:10, 80:20, and 70: 30 (samples Nos. 1+9: sample No. A).

Author Biographies

Varoujan K. Sissakian, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

Mr. Varoujan K. Sissakian graduated from University of Baghdad in 1969 with B.Sc. degree in Geology, and M.Sc. in Engineering Geological Mapping from I.T.C., the Netherlands in 1982. He joined Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV) in 1971 and was nominated as Expert in 2005; he was the Director of Geology Department since May 2004 until October 2012. He has 125 documented reports in GEOSURV's library and 105 published articles in different geological aspects in different geological journals. He was the Deputy Vice President of the Middle East Subcommission of the Committee of Compilation the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), Paris, from February 2010 until August 2012. Retired on 10 October 2012. His major fields of interest are geological mapping, stratigraphy of the Iraqi territory, site investigation, and geological hazards. He was Visiting Lecturer at the University of Kurdistan Hewler since October 2014 and Lecturer since February 2017.

Dalyia A. Hamoodi, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

Ms.Dalyia fininshed her master degree in 2009 from Warsaw University,  and she is specialized in Microbiology. She gradauted in 2006 from Al-Mustansyria University where she obatined her Bachelor degree in Biology.  She worked for four years in Baghdad University in the medical school, and she is working currently in the University of Kurdistan Hewler since 2015 as an assistant lecturer in Microbiology.

Hassan O. Omer, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

Mr. Hassan holds a B.Sc. in Geology from the university of Damascus (Syria) in Geophysics, master student in his second year. His area of expertise covers, drilling oil and water wells, wellsite geologist, Core processing engineer, and mud logging. He had worked with several international oil companies in Kurdistan; Gazprom, ALS Group and Taqa Energy. Currently he is working as Lab assistant in geology at University of Kurdistan Hewler.

Sazan A. Nyazi, Graduated, University of Kurdistan Hewler

She is graduated as Mineral Resources Engineer, in 2018, from the Unversity of Kurdistan Hewler.

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Published
2019-03-01
How to Cite
Sissakian, V., Hamoodi, D., Omer, H., & Nyazi, S. (2019, March 1). Assessment of the Carbonate Rocks of the Pila Spi Formation for Cement Industry, in Permam Mountain, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 3(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v3n1y2019.pp1-9
Section
Research Articles