Determining the Tectonic Origin of the Gara and Mateen Anticlines Using Geomorphological and Structural Forms, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

  • Varoujan K. Sissakian Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9840-5422
  • Ala A. Ghafur Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-2472
  • Hawkar A. Abdulhaq Natural Resources Engineering & Management Department, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8639-3225
  • Hassan O. Omer Natural Resources Engineering & Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0232-5653
Keywords: Lateral growth, Water and wind gaps, Fork-shaped valleys, Abandoned alluvial fans, En-echelon plunges

Abstract

Gara and Mateen are 2 major anticlines in the northern part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, located in the vicinity of the town Amadiyah. Both anticlines are oriented in an almost east–west (E–W) trend with a steep southern limb. The length and width of the Gara and Mateen anticlines are 87 km and 63 km, and 11 km and 9.5 km, respectively. The 2 anticlines are separated by a wide and shallow syncline filled by the Tertiary rocks of the Pliocene–Pleistocene age. The oldest exposed rocks in the Gara and Mateen anticlines are from the Triassic age. The carapace of both anticlines is built up by the Bekhme and Qamchuqa formations. The geomorphological and structural features were studied through satellite images and geological maps. Based on these studies, it was found that both anticlines show clear geomorphological and structural features that indicate their lateral growth. Among those features are water and wind gaps, different shapes of valleys that indicate lateral growth, abandoned alluvial fans, whale-back shapes, en-echelon plunges, and multiple dome anticlines. Furthermore, the rate of upward movements was calculated using neotectonic data. In addition, the rate of river and stream incisions was calculated on the basis of the height of the river terrace levels.

Author Biographies

Varoujan K. Sissakian, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq

Varoujan K. Sissakian graduated from the University of Baghdad in 1969 with B.Sc. degree in Geology, and M.Sc. in Engineering Geological Mapping from I.T.C., the Netherlands in 1982. He joined Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV) in 1971 and was nominated as Expert in 2005; retired in 2012. He has 125 documented reports in GEOSURV's library and 158 published articles in different geological aspects in different geological journals and 29 articles in different stages of publications. He was the Deputy Vice President of the Middle East Subcommission of the Committee of Compilation the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), Paris, from February 2010 until August 2012. He was Visiting Lecturer in University of Kurdistan, Hewler, since October, 2014 and Lecturer since February, 2017. Currently, he is a Lecturer in the University of Kurdistan Hewler.

Ala A. Ghafur, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq

Ala A. Ghafur, Assistant Professor in the Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management joined UKH in September 2013 having different positions in the Natural Resources Engineering and Management department including Chair of the department. She received her PhD degree in Petroleum Geoscience from Cardiff University-United Kingdom, specialized in Carbonate Reservoir Characterization and Sedimentology.

Hawkar A. Abdulhaq, Natural Resources Engineering & Management Department, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq.

Hawkar Ali Abdulhaq graduated from University of Salahadeen in 2011 with BSc degree in Geology. In 2011, he joined MOL Kalegran company as an Exploration geologist until 2016. In 2015, he studied MSc degree at the University of Miskolc in Hungary. On December 2017, he joined UKH as a teaching and lab assistant at the department of natural resource engineering and management.

Hassan O. Omer, Natural Resources Engineering & Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq.

Lab assistant in Geology holds a BS.c from the university of Damascus (Syria) in Geophysics, master student in his second year. His area of expertise covers, drilling oil and water wells, wellsite geologist, Core processing engineer, and mud logging. He had worked with several international oil companies in Kurdistan; Gazprom, ALS Group and Taqa Energy.

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Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
Sissakian, V., Ghafur, A., Abdulhaq, H., & Omer, H. (2020, December 31). Determining the Tectonic Origin of the Gara and Mateen Anticlines Using Geomorphological and Structural Forms, Iraqi Kurdistan Region. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2), 84-100. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v4n2y2020.pp84-100
Section
Research Articles
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