Reconnaissance Stream Sediments Survey in the Sidakan Vicinity, Iraqi Kurdistan Region


  • Hawkar A. Abdulhaq Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F.R. Iraq
  • Baroz Aziz Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, F. R. Iraq
  • Varoujan K. Sissakian Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F.R. Iraq
  • Hassan O. Omer Natural Resources Engineering & Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq.
  • Anyrag Malik Scientist, Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, India



Stream-sediment; Silver; Uranium; Cocentration map; Kurdistan, Iraq


A stream survey was conducted in the Sidakan vicinity in the northeastern part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, which covered the catchment area of the main stream. The covered area is about 450 km2. The exposed rocks in the study area are mainly igneous with subordinate sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The catchment area was divided into 14 sub-basins using Global Mapper software. The junction point of the valleys at the end of each sub-basin was sampled. From each junction point, 2 stream sediments were collected. The samples were sieved using the wet method into 2 mm fractions, before the fractions were subjected to x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results obtained from both tests were used to calculate the concentrations of 9 elements (Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, U, Ag, V, Zn, and Cd). The element concentrations are presented in 9 concentration maps after normalizing the concentration values. Some anomalous results were found. The average concentrations of Ag and Cd were nearly 120 and 266 times higher than the background concentrations (6 mg/kg and 16 mg/ kg, respectively). The acquired data also showed interesting average concentrations for the elements Co, Cr, Ni, and U (280 mg/kg, 999 mg/kg, 375 mg/kg, and 12 mg/kg, respectively). All of these anomalous concentrations are discussed and possible reasons for their existence are given.


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Author Biographies

  • Hawkar A. Abdulhaq, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F.R. Iraq

    Hawkar Ali Abdulhaq graduated from University of Salahadeen in 2011 with BSc degree in Geology. In 2011, he joined MOL Kalegran company as an Exploration geologist until 2016. In 2015, he studied MSc degree at the University of Miskolc in Hungary. On December 2017, he joined UKH as a teaching and lab assistant at the department of natural resource engineering and management.

  • Varoujan K. Sissakian, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F.R. Iraq

    Varoujan K. Sissakian graduated from University of Baghdad in 1969 with B.Sc. degree in Geology, and M.Sc. in Engineering Geological Mapping from I.T.C., the Netherlands in 1982. He joined Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV) in 1971 and was nominated as Expert in 2005; retired on 10th of October, 2012. He has 125 documented reports in GEOSURV's library and 145 published articles in different geological aspects in different geological journals and 36 articles in different stages of publications.

    He was the Deputy Vice President of the Middle East Subcommission of the Committee of Compilation the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), Paris, from February 2010 until August 2012. He was Visiting Lecturer in University of Kurdistan, Hewler, since October, 2014 and Lecturer since February, 2017. Currently, he is a Lecturer in the University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, KRG, Iraq.


  • Hassan O. Omer, Natural Resources Engineering & Management, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Kurdistan Region- F. R. Iraq.

    Lab assistant in Geology holds a BS.c from the university of Damascus (Syria) in Geophysics, master student in his second year. His area of expertise covers, drilling oil and water wells, wellsite geologist, Core processing engineer, and mud logging. He had worked with several international oil companies in Kurdistan; Gazprom, ALS Group and Taqa Energy.

  • Anyrag Malik, Scientist, Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, India

    Anurag Malik is a PhD holder. He currently works as a sceintist at the Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, , Bathinda, Punjab, India


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Reconnaissance Stream Sediments Survey in the Sidakan Vicinity, Iraqi Kurdistan Region. (2020). UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2), 101-118.

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