Numerical Simulation of Ground Anchor-Soil Nail Retaining Systems for Academic-Learning Purposes


  • Kamran Panaghi Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Numerical Simulation, Soil Nailing, Hardening Soil Model (HS), Fontainebleau Sand, Plaxis 2D.


The ever-expanding urban architecture in developing areas requires more land space for construction purposes to be available. For this, utilizing the sub-surface areas through excavations in populous cities is now on the increasing trend. Two major concerns in such excavation projects are excavation-wall stability and the induced ground settlements which can be countered by a soil nailing-ground anchor system. In this regard, influential factors such as nail length and nail inclination angles can affect the overall performance of stabilized ground. Therefore, the focus of the present study is on how the aforementioned influence excavation-induced ground deformations. The numerical simulation is conducted using the software Plaxis 2D. The established numerical models help to explain how changes in the nails’ inclination angles and anchor lengths can change the observed behavior of the walls; from which helpful tips for practicing engineers are drawn accordingly. Such results could also be utilized for classroom presentations to aid students’ understanding of geotechnical engineering concepts.


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Author Biography

  • Kamran Panaghi, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Dr Kamran Panaghi work at the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


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How to Cite

Numerical Simulation of Ground Anchor-Soil Nail Retaining Systems for Academic-Learning Purposes. (2022). UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1), 42-51.

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