Numerical Simulation of Ground Anchor-Soil Nail Retaining Systems for Academic-Learning Purposes

  • Kamran Panaghi Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1980-8619
Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Soil Nailing, Hardening Soil Model (HS), Fontainebleau Sand, Plaxis 2D.

Abstract

The ever-expanding urban architecture in developing areas requires more land space for construction purposes to be available. For this, utilizing the sub-surface areas through excavations in populous cities is now on the increasing trend. Two major concerns in such excavation projects are excavation-wall stability and the induced ground settlements which can be countered by a soil nailing-ground anchor system. In this regard, influential factors such as nail length and nail inclination angles can affect the overall performance of stabilized ground. Therefore, the focus of the present study is on how the aforementioned influence excavation-induced ground deformations. The numerical simulation is conducted using the software Plaxis 2D. The established numerical models help to explain how changes in the nails’ inclination angles and anchor lengths can change the observed behavior of the walls; from which helpful tips for practicing engineers are drawn accordingly. Such results could also be utilized for classroom presentations to aid students’ understanding of geotechnical engineering concepts.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Kamran Panaghi, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Dr Kamran Panaghi work at the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

References

Barrett, C., Zhang, R., and Rock, A. (2013). Advances in design methodology for landslide repair using launched soil nails. In: Geo-congress 2013, ASCE, pp 1811–1820.
Briaud, J.-L. and Lim, Y. (1997). Soil-nailed wall under piled bridge abutment: simulation and guidelines. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123 (11), 1043–1050.
Clough, G.W. and O'Rourke, T. D., (1990). Construction induced movements of in situ walls. In Proc. Design and performance of earth retaining structure, ASCE Special conference, Ithaca, New York, pp 439-470.
Das, B.M. and Sobhan, K. (2016). Principles of geotechnical engineering (8th ed.). SI, Cengage Learning, USA.
Dong, Y., Burd, H., Houlsby, G., and Hou, Y. (2014). Advanced finite element analysis of a complex deep excavation case history in shanghai. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 8 (1), 93–100. DOI:10.1007/s11709-014-0232-3.
Duncan, J.M. and Chang, C.Y. (1970). Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soil. ASCE J. of the Soil Mech. And Found. Div., 96, 1629–1653.
Feijo, R. L. and Erhlich, M. (2003). Nail pullout tests in residual soils in Rio De Janeiro-Brazil. Proc., Soil-Rock America 2003, P. J. Culligan, H. H. Einstein, and A. J. Whittle, eds., Cambridge, U.K., 2133–2138.
FHWA (2015). Soil nail wall reference manual. Publication No. FHWA-NHI-14-007, FHWA GEC 007.
FHWA (1999). Ground anchors and anchored systems. Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-015, Washington, DC 20590.
Garg, A., Garg, A., and Tai, K. (2014). An integrated SRM-multi-gene genetic programming approach for prediction of factor of safety of 3-D soil nailed slopes. Eng Appl Artif Intell, 30, 30–40.
Hsiung, B.-C.B. (2009). A case study on the behaviour of a deep excavation in sand. Computers and Geotechnics, 36 (4), 665–675. DOI:10.1016/j.compgeo.2008.10.003.
Hsiung, B., Yang. K., Aila, W., and Ge, L. (2018). Evaluation of the wall deflections of a deep excavation in central jakarta using three-dimensional modeling. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 72, 84–96.
Hsieh, P. G. and Ou, C.Y. (1998). Shape of ground surface settlement profiles caused by excavation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35, 1004-1017.
Hwang, R., Moh, Z., and Wang, CH. (2007). Performance of wall system during excavation for Core Pacific city. J GeoEng; 2(2), 53–60.
Khoiri, M. and Ou, C.-Y. (2013). Evaluation of deformation parameter for deep excavation in sand through case histories. Computers and Geotechnics, 47, 57–67.
Konda, T., Ota, H., Yanagawa, T., and Hashimoto A. (2008). Measurements of ground deformations behind braced excavations. The 6th international symposium on geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft ground. p. 295–300.
Latini, C. and Zania, V. (2017). Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand. Internal Report, Technical University of Denmark.
Likitlersuang, S., Surarak, C., Wanatowski, D., Oh, E., and Balasubramaniam, A. (2013). Finite element analysis of a deep excavation: A case study from the Bangkok MRT. Soils Foundat, 53(5), 756–773.
Liu, G., Ng C, and Wang, Z. (2005). Observed performance of a deep multistructured excavation in Shanghai soft clays. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng.,131(8), 1004–13.
Long, M. (2001). Database for retaining wall and ground movements due to deep excavation. J. Geotech. & Geoenviron. Engrg, ASCE, 127(3), 203-224.
Moormann, C. (2004). Analysis of wall and ground movement due to deep excavation in soft soil based on a new worldwide database. Soils and Foundations, 44(1), 87-98.
Ng, C. W.W. (1998). Observed Performance of multi-propped excavation in stiff clay. J. Geotech & Geoenviron. Engrg, 124 (9), 889-905.
Nguyen, KL and Treyssede, F. (2015). Numerical investigation of leaky modes in helical structural waveguides embedded into a solid medium. Ultrasonics, 57, 125–134.
Orazalin, Z., Whittle, A.J., and Olsen, M.B. (2015). Three-dimension analysis of excavation support system for the Stata Centre Basement on the MIT campus. J. Geotechn. Geoenviron. Eng., 141 (7), 0501500.
Plaxis (2021). Plaxis 2D Connect Edition V21.01 reference manual, Delft, Netherlands.
Plumelle, C. and Schlosser, F. (1990). A French national research project on soil nailing: clouterre. Performance of reinforced soil structure. ICE Publishing, British Geotechnical Society.
Pradhan, B., Tham, LG., Yue, ZQ., Junaideen, SM., Lee, CF. (2006). Soil–nail pullout interaction in loose fill materials. Int J Geomech ASCE, 6(4), 238–247.
Schanz, T. (1998). Zur Modellierung des Mechanischen Verhaltens von Reibungsmaterialen. Habilitation, Stuttgart Universität.
Sheil, B. and McCabe, B. (2016). Biaxial loading of offshore monopoles: numerical modeling. Int. J. Geomech., 04016050.
Shi, J., Liu, G., Huang, P., and Ng, C. (2015). Interaction between a large-scale triangular excavation and adjacent structures in shanghai soft clay. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 50, 282–295.
Wang, H., Cheng, J-H., Guo, Y-C., Gao, X-J. (2016). Failure mechanism of soil nail—prestressed anchor composite retaining structure. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 34 (6), 1889–1898.
Watkins, A. T., and Powell, G. E. (1992). Soil nailing to existing slopes as landslip preventive works. Hong Kong Eng., 20 (March), 20–27.
Wong I. H., Poh T. Y., and Chuah, H. L., (1997). Performance of excavations for depressed expressway in Singapore, J. Geo. & Geoenv. Engrg., 123(7), 617-625.
Yang, MZ. and Drumm, EC. (2000) Numerical analysis of the load transfer and deformation in a soil nailed slope. Geotech Special Publ, 96, 102–16.
Zhang, W., Wang, W., Zhou, D., Zhang, R., Goh, A.T.C., and Hou, Z. (2018). Influence of groundwater drawdown on excavation responses – a case history in bukit timah granitic residual soils. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 10, 856–864.
Zhou, Y., Cheuk, C., and Tham, L. (2009). Numerical modelling of soil nails in loose fill slope under surcharge loading. Computers and Geotechnics, 36 (5), 837–850.
Published
2022-06-30
How to Cite
Panaghi, K. (2022, June 30). Numerical Simulation of Ground Anchor-Soil Nail Retaining Systems for Academic-Learning Purposes. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp42-51
Section
Research Articles
Share |