A Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of System Parameters on Subspace-based DoA Estimation Performance


  • Bakhtiar A. Karim Department of Communication Engineering, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6417-5588
  • Haitham K. Ali Department of Communication Engineering, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9299-2091




DoA, Subspace, MUSIC, Estimation, Computational-Complexity, Resolution


This work provides an explanatory analysis of the influence of input parameters on the performance of subspace-based Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms. The objective of this work is twofold. First, to drive a Steering Vector (SV) that works for arbitrary array configuration rather than just Uniform Linear Array (ULA) geometry. Second, to identify how the performance of the subspace-based algorithms is affected by tuning the input parameters. The later objective is crucial as it allows optimizing the algorithm through selecting optimum parameters to set an appropriate tradeoff between complexity and performance based on the intended applications. Toward that end, we firstly drive an SV for arbitrary array configuration followed by revealing the working principle of subspace based DoA techniques. Secondly, we evaluate the impact of several parameters namely Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of snapshots, number of array elements, separation between array elements, number of available sources, and dependency between sources to conduct our analysis. Numerical simulations over a wide range of scenarios along with intensive Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to show the influence of these parameters on the resolution, accuracy, and complexity of the subspace based DoA estimation algorithm. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the performance of this class of DoA estimation method is determined mostly by the values of the input parameters. Furthermore, the simulation results show that tradeoff between performance and computational complexity needs to be considered when the system parameters are chosen for DoA estimation algorithms.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Bakhtiar A. Karim, Department of Communication Engineering, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Bakhtiar Ali Karim was born in 1989. He received his BSc degree in communications engineering from Sulaimani Polytechnic University (SPU), Iraq, in 2010, and MSc degree in communications and signal processing from university of Leeds, UK, 2016. In 2014, he achieved a scholarship from the Higher Committee for Education Development (HCED), Iraq, to complete the MSc. degree. Since 2012, he has been with the communications engineering department, SPU, Iraq, where he is currently a PhD student and lecturer. In 2020, he received a formal HCIA-5G Certificate from Huawei company and his currently a formal instructor for that company to deliver 5G courses. His current research interest is mainly focused on angle of arrival estimation algorithms, array signal processing, antenna design for 5G.

  • Haitham K. Ali, Department of Communication Engineering, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Haitham K. Ali was born in 1970. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the university of technology, Al-Rashied college of Engineering & science, Baghdad, Iraq, in 1997 and 2006, respectively. He is now a professor in electronics and communication engineering with the technical college of Engineering/ Sulaimani Polytechnic University (SPU). He is the author of several academic journals papers. His research interests are mainly focused on FPGA , Electronics and Communication, Digital Signal Processing (DSP), Image Processing and Radar.


Abdelbari, A. & Bilgehan, B. (2021). PESO: Probabilistic evaluation of subspaces orthogonality for wideband DOA estimation. Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, 32(2), 715-746.
Abdulrazak, L. F. (2018). I-MUSIC Algorithm and Fixed Null Insertion. In Coexistence of IMT-Advanced Systems for Spectrum Sharing with FSS Receivers in C-Band and Extended C-Band (pp. 81-102): Springer.
Abeida, H. & Delmas, J.-P. (2021). Robustness and performance analysis of subspace-based DOA estimation for rectilinear correlated sources in CES data model. Signal processing, 178, 107799.
Arceo-Olague, J. G., Rosales, D. H. C., Luna-Rivera, J. & Ángeles-Valencia, A. (2010). Efficient Adaptive Algorithms for DOA Estimation in Wireless Communications. Int. J. Commun. Netw. Syst. Sci., 3(2), 173-176.
Barabell, A. (1983, 14-16 April 1983). Improving the resolution performance of eigenstructure-based direction-finding algorithms.
Bardhan, S. & Jacob, S. (2015). Experimental observation of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms in a tank environment for sonar application. Paper presented at the 2015 International Symposium on Ocean Electronics (SYMPOL).
Boustani, B., Baghdad, A., Sahel, A. & Badri, A. (2019). Performance analysis of direction of arrival algorithms for smart antenna. International Journal of Electrical Computer Engineering, 9(6), 4873.
Cadzow, J. A. (1988). A high resolution direction-of-arrival algorithm for narrow-band coherent and incoherent sources. IEEE Transactions on acoustics, speech, signal processing, 36(7), 965-979.
Capon, J. (1969). High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE, 57(8), 1408-1418.
Chen, J., Wu, Y., Cao, H. & Wang, H. (2011). Fast algorithm for DOA estimation with partial covariance matrix and without eigendecomposition. Journal of Signal information Processing, 2(4), 266.
Dong, M., Zhang, S.-h., Wu, X.-d. & Zhang, H. (2007). A high resolution spatial smoothing algorithm. Paper presented at the Proceedings of International Microwave, Antenna, Propagation and EMC Technologies for Wireless Communications Symposium.
Dong, W., Lu, Q., Wu, S., Lei, S. & Pu, B. (2021a). DOA Estimation of Mixture Signals Based on the PSA. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 109, 1-11.
Dong, W., Lu, Q., Wu, S., Lei, S. & Pu, B. (2021b). DOA Estimation of Mixture Signals Based on the PSA. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 112, 1-10.
Du, W. & Kirlin, R. L. (1991). Improved spatial smoothing techniques for DOA estimation of coherent signals. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 39(5), 1208-1210.
Eranti, P. K. & Barkana, B. D. (2022). An Overview of Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Methods Using Adaptive Directional Time-Frequency Distributions. Electronics, 11(9), 1321.
Eray, H. & Temizel, A. (2020). Performance analysis of noise subspace-based narrowband direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms on CPU and GPU. arXiv preprint arXiv:.14135.
Evans, J. E., Sun, D. & Johnson, J. (1982). Application of advanced signal processing techniques to angle of arrival estimation in ATC navigation and surveillance systems. Retrieved from
Ghali, M. A. & Abdullah, A. S. (2011). Weights Optimization of 1D and 2D Adaptive Arrays Using Neural Network Approach. Journal of Telecommunications Information Technology, 8, 45-50.
Gong, P. & Chen, X. (2021). Computationally Efficient Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Algorithms for a Cubic Coprime Array. Sensors, 22(1), 136.
Guo, F., Liu, H., Huang, J., Zhang, X., Zu, X., Li, B. & Yuan, X. (2016). Design of a direction-of-arrival estimation method used for an automatic bearing tracking system. Sensors, 16(7), 1145.
Jami, I. & Ormondroyd, R. (2000). Improved method for estimating angle of arrival in multipath conditions using the'MUSIC'algorithm. Paper presented at the 2000 IEEE-APS Conference on Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communications (Cat. No. 00EX380).
Kabir, A. L., Saha, R., Khan, M. A. & Sohul, M. M. (2009). Locating Mobile Station Using Joint TOA/AOA. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies & Applications.
Khan, N. A., Ali, S. & Choi, K. (2021). An Efficient Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Sources with Intersecting Signature in the Time–Frequency Domain. Applied Sciences, 11(4), 1849.
Kim, S. & Lee, K.-K. (2018). Low-complexity joint extrapolation-MUSIC-based 2-D parameter estimator for vital FMCW radar. IEEE Sensors Journal, 19(6), 2205-2216.
Krim, H. & Viberg, M. (1996). Two decades of array signal processing research: the parametric approach. IEEE signal processing magazine, 13(4), 67-94.
Kumaresan, R. & Tufts, D. W. (1983). Estimating the angles of arrival of multiple plane waves. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace electronic Systems(1), 134-139.
Liu, C., Chen, Z., Peng, D. & Propagation. (2021). Fast DOA Estimation Based on the Transform Domain Weighted Noise Subspace Fitting Algorithm for Generalized Sparse Array. International Journal of Antennas, 2021.
Liu, X., Chen, J. & Xu, L. (2018). Fast Root-MUSIC Algorithm Based on Nystrom Method and Spectral Factorization. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 78, 81-88.
MacInnes, C. S. (2004). Source localization using subspace estimation and spatial filtering. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 29(2), 488-497.
Marcos, S., Marsal, A. & Benidir, M. (1995). The propagator method for source bearing estimation. Signal processing, 42(2), 121-138.
Munier, J. & Delisle, G. Y. (1991). Spatial analysis using new properties of the cross-spectral matrix. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 39(3), 746-749.
Pan, J., Sun, M., Wang, Y. & Zhang, X. (2020). An enhanced spatial smoothing technique with ESPRIT algorithm for direction of arrival estimation in coherent scenarios. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 68, 3635-3643.
Pillai, S. U. & Kwon, B. H. (1989). Forward/backward spatial smoothing techniques for coherent signal identification. IEEE Transactions on acoustics, speech, signal processing, 37(1), 8-15.
Pisarenko, V. F. (1973). The retrieval of harmonics from a covariance function. Geophysical Journal International, 33(3), 347-366.
Qian, C., Huang, L., Zeng, W.-J. & So, H. C. (2014). Direction-of-arrival estimation for coherent signals without knowledge of source number. IEEE Sensors Journal, 14(9), 3267-3273.
Reddi, S. (1979). Multiple source location-a digital approach. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace Electronic Systems(1), 95-105.
Ren, Q. & Willis, A. (1997). Fast root MUSIC algorithm. Electronics Letters, 33(6), 450-451.
Roy, R. & Kailath, T. (1989). ESPRIT-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques. IEEE Transactions on acoustics, speech, signal processing, 37(7), 984-995.
Schmidt, R. (1986). Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, 34(3), 276-280.
Suksiri, B. & Fukumoto, M. (2019). An Efficient Framework for Estimating the Direction of Multiple Sound Sources Using Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition. Sensors, 19(13), 2977.
Tayem, N., Kwon, Hyuck M. (2005). L-shape 2-dimensional arrival angle estimation with propagator method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, 53(5), 1622-1630.
Wan, L., Han, G., Shu, L., Chan, S. & Zhu, T. (2016). The application of DOA estimation approach in patient tracking systems with high patient density. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 12(6), 2353-2364.
Wax, M., Shan, T.-J. & Kailath, T. (1984). Spatio-temporal spectral analysis by eigenstructure methods. IEEE transactions on acoustics, speech, and signal processing, 32(4), 817-827.
Yan, F.-G., Wang, J., Liu, S., Shen, Y. & Jin, M. (2018). Reduced-complexity direction of arrival estimation using real-valued computation with arbitrary array configurations. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2018.
Yeh, C.-C. (1986). Projection approach to bearing estimations. IEEE Transactions on acoustics, speech, signal processing, 34(5), 1347-1349.
Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Zheng, G., Feng, C. & Tang, J. (2017). Improved DOA estimation algorithm for co-prime linear arrays using root-MUSIC algorithm. Electronics Letters, 53(18), 1277-1279.





Research Articles

How to Cite

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of System Parameters on Subspace-based DoA Estimation Performance. (2022). UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(2), 38-54. https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n2y2022.pp38-54

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>