Molecular Typing and Virulence Analysis of Pseudomonas Aerugınosa Isolated From Burn Infections Recovered From Duhok and Erbil Hospitals/Iraq.
In this study, 225 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recovered from burn wounds in major hospitals in Duhok and Erbil, Iraq, between April 2015 and September 2015. A total of 136 of these isolates were from men, comprising 60.4% of the total, whereas 89 (39.6%) were recovered from women. One hundred of these isolates were selected (50 from each province of Erbil and Duhok) and subjected to 16 different antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed a high level of resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, with 90% of the isolates being multidrug resistant. Imipenem was considered as the most effective antibiotic against these isolates with a resistant rate of 47%. The genome of all of these isolates were successfully amplified and produced a single band for the 16S rDNA locus with a molecular weight of about 956 base pairs, which was used to confirm, at the molecular level, that all these isolates were indeed P. aeruginosa. The results of the detection of five virulence-related genes including opr1, toxA, exoS, lasB, and nan1 revealed that 10 of these isolates, accounting for 10%, lacked any of the tested virulence markers. The opr1 gene, as a marker for the presence of a pathogenicity island, was the most dominant marker among all the virulence markers and was detected in 90 isolates (90%), followed by the toxA and exoS genes, which were both observed in 86 (86%) isolates, whereas the lasB gene was found in 82 (82%) isolates and the nan1 gene in 35 (35%) of the isolates, respectively.
Cevahir, N., Demir, M., Kaleli, I., Gurbuz, M. & Tikvesli, S. (2008). Evalution of biofilm production, gelatinase activity, and mannose-resistent hemagglutination Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Journal of Microbiology and Immunolgical Infection, 41(6), 513-518.
Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, part2, 2nd Ed.Cambridge University, 13, 511-978
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI. (2007). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; seventeenth informational supplement. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 57 (9);1-19.
Cunliffe, H. E., Merriman, T. R. & Lamont, I. L. (1995). Cloning and characterization of pvdS, a gene required for pyoverdine synthesis in P.aeruginosa: PvdS is probably an alternative sigma factor. Journal of Bacteriology, 177 (10), 2744-2750.
David, A. S., Wook, C., Freshteh, T. & William, E. B. (2007). Comparative global transcription analysis of sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide on P. aeruginosa. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 76 (5), 1093-1105.
De Vos, D., Lim, A. J. R., Vos, P. D. E., A. Sarniguet, A., Kersters, K. & Cornelis, P. (1993). Detection of the outer membrane lipoprotein I and its gene in fluorescent and non fluorescent pseudomonads: implications for taxonomy and diagnosis. Journal of General Microbiology, 139 (9), 2215-2223.
Douglas, M. W., Mulholland, K., Denyer, V. & Gottlieb, T. (2001). Multi-drug resistant P.aeruginosa outbreak in a burns unit an infection control study. Burns, 27(2),131-135.
Edwards, V. & Greenwood, J. (2003). What’s new in burn microbiology? James Laing memorial prize essay 2000. Burns, 29 (1), 15-24.
Fazeli, N. & Momtaz, H. (2014). Virulence gene profiles of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from iranian hospital infections. Iran Red Crescent Medical Journal, 16 (10), e15722.
Flores, J. & Okhuysen, P. C. (2009). Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection. J. Current Opinion in Gastroenterol, 25 (1), 8-11.
Gallagher, L. A. & Manoil, C. (2001). P. aeruginosa PAO1 kills Caenorhabditis elegans by cyanide poisoning. Journal of Bacteriology, 183 (21), 6207-6214.
Hancock, R. E. (1998). Resistance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa and other nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Clinical Infection Disease 27 (1), 93-99.
Hodiwala, A., Dhoke, R. & Urhekar, A. D. (2013). Incidence of metalo-β- lactamse producing Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacterial isolates in hospitalized patients. International Journal of Pharma and Biological Sciences, 3 (1):79-83.
Karimian, A., Momtaz, H. & Madani, M. (2012). Detection of uropathogenic E.coli virulence factors in patients with urinary tract infections in Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6 (39), 6811-6816.
Khattab, M. A., Nour, M. S. & ElSheshtawy, N. M. (2015). Genetic Identification of P. aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates, Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 7 (5), 274-277.
Lari, A. K., Bahrami, H. H. & Alaghehbandan, R. (1998). Pseudomonas infection in Tohid Burn Centre, Iran. Burns, 24 (7), 637-641.
Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E. F. & Sambrook, J. (1982). Molecular cloning: a Laboratory Manual Gold Spring Harber Laboratory, New York. Biotechnology, 5(6), 257-261
Naqvi, Z. A., Hashmi, K., Rizwan, Q. M. & Kharal S. A. (2005). Multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa: A nosocomial infection threat in burn patients. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology, 22 (2), 9-15.
Neely, A. N. & Holder, I. A. (1999). Antimicrobial resistance. Burns, 25 (1), 17-24.
Nicolle, L. E. (2005). Complicated urinary tract infection in adults. Can Jornal Infection Disease Medical Microbiology, 16 (6), 349-360.
Oral, Oancul, Yuksel, F., Altunay, H., Acikel, C., Celikoz, B. & Cavulu, S. (2002). The evaluation of nasocomial infection during 1st year period in the burn unit of a training hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Burns, 28 (8), 738-744.
Paterson, D. L. (2006). Resistance in gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae, Journal of Academic., 34 (5), 20-28.
Rawya, I. B., Magda, el. N., Amr el. S. & Ahmed B. el.D. (2008). P. aeruginosa exotoxin A as a virulence factor in burn wound infections. Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 17 (1), 125-133.
Sadikot, R. T., Blackwell, T. S., Christman, J. W. & Prince, A. S. (2005). Pathogen-host interactions in P. aeruginosa pneumonia. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171 (11), 1209-1223
Song, W., Lee, K. M., Kang, H. J., Shin, D. H. and Kim, D. K. (2001). Microbiologic aspects of predominant bacteria isolated from the burn patients in Korea. Burns, 27(2), 136-139.
Spilker, T., Tom, C., Peter, V. & John, J. L. (2004). PCR-based assay for differentiation of P. aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species recovered from cystic fibrosis patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42 (5), 2074-2079.
Stover, C. K., Pham, X. Q., Erwin, A. L., Mizoguchi, S. D., Warrener, P., Hickey M. J., Brinkman, F. S. L., Hufnagle, W.
O., Kowalik, D. J., Lagrou, M., Garber, R. L., Goltry, L., Tolentino, E., Westbrock-Wadman, S., Yuan, Y., Brody L. L., Coulter S. N., Folger K. R., Kas A., Larbig, K., Lim, R., Smith, K., Spencer, D., Wong, G. K.-S., Wu, Z., Paulsenk, I. T., Reizer, J., Saier, M. H., Hancock, R. E. W., Lory, S. & Olson, M. V. (2000). Complete genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen. Nature 406 (6799), 959-964.
Theodore S., Tom C., Peter V. & John J. L. (2004). PCR-based assay for differentiation of P. aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species recovered from cystic fibrosis patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42 (5), 2074-2079.
Todar, K. (2009). The mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology the Microbial Word Pathogenesis, 8, 234-243.
Vincent, J.L., Chierego, M., Struelens, M. & Byl, B. (2004). Infection control in the intensive care unit. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy Journal, 2, 795-805.
Wolska, K., Szweda, P. (2009). Genetic features of clinical P. aeruginosa strain. Journal of Microbiology, 85 (3), 255-260.
Yasufuku, T., Shigemura, K., Shirakawa, T., Matsumoto, M., Nakano, Y., Tanaka, K., Arakawa, S., Kinoshita, S., Kawabata, M. & Fujisawa, M. (2011). Correlation of overexpression of efflux pump genes with antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli Strains clinically isolated from urinary tract infection patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49 (1), 189-194.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).