Alterations in the Serum Trace Element Levels in Women Infected with Chlamydia Trachomatis
Most infectious diseases are accompanied by changes in the levels of several trace elements in the blood. A total of 88 female patients referred to the Nawroz Private Laboratory in the Duhok province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, were enrolled in this study. The enrolled patients were sent to the laboratory for investigation of their hormone levels because they were suffering from various gynecologic abnormalities. The serum levels of anti-chlamydia immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibodies were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, and the serum trace element levels were evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy.
The results showed that 10 (11.4 %) of the samples tested positive for the presence of anti-chlamydia IgG antibodies, whereas none of the samples tested positive for anti-chlamydia IgM antibodies. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the serum potassium levels was observed in response to the chlamydia infection, whereas no signiﬁcant changes were observed in any of the other elements.
Chandra, R. K. (1984). Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA. 252: 1443-1446.
Deveci, F. and Ilhan, N. (2003). Plasma malondialdehyde and serum trace element concentrations in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Biological Trace Element Research. 95: 29-38.
Friis, H. (2005). Micronutrients and infections: an introduction. In: Friis, H. ed. Micronutrients and HIV infection. Durban, South Africa. CRC Press: 1-21.
Halme, S.; Latvala, J.; Karttunen, R.; Palatsi, I.; Saikku, P. and Surcel, H. M. (2000). Cell-mediated immune response during primary Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Infect. Immun. 68: 7156-8.
Kassu, T.; Yabutani, Z. H.; Mahmud, A.; et al. (2006). Alterations in serum levels of trace elements in tuberculosis and HIV infections. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60: 580–586.
Milena L. de Moraes , Catarine G. L. Canellas , Marcelino J. Anjos, Daniela M. P. Ramalho, Karina N. Delogo, Pryscila F. C. Miranda , Eliene D. D. Mesquita, Afrânio L. Kritski , Martha M. Oliveira and Ricardo T. Lopes. (2011). Trace elements status of pulmonary tuberculosis patients compared with healthy voluntarees. International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2011 Belo Horizonte,MG, Brazil, October 24-28.
Mohan, G.; Kulshreshtha, S.; and Sharma, P. (2006). Zinc and copper in Indian patients of tuberculosis. Biological Trace Element Research. 111: 63-69.
Paavonen, J. and Eggert-Kruse, W. (1995). Chlamydia trachomatis: impact on human reproduction. Hum Reprod. Update. 5(5):433-47.
Pekarek, R. S. and Engelhardt, J. A. (1981). Infection-induced alterations in trace metal metabolism: Relationship to organism virulence and host defense. 131-146. In Powanda, M.C., Canonico, P.G. (ed.), Infection: The physiologic and metabolic responses of the host. Biomedical Press, Elsevier/North Holland: (131-146).
Scrimshaw, N. S.; Taylor, C. E.; Gordon, J. E. (1968). Interactions of nutrition and infection. Geneva, World Health Organization, 57: pp.329.
Seyrek, A.; Kocyigit, A.; and Erel, O. (2005). Essential trace elements selenium, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations and their related acute-phase proteins in patients with vivax malaria. Biol.Trace Elem.Res.106(2): 107-115.
Shankar, A. H. and Prasad, A. S. (1998). Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 68: 447-463.
T Ulukavak Ciftci , B Ciftci, O Yis, Y Guney, A Bilgihan, M Ogretensoy (2003). Changes in serum selenium, copper, zinc levels and Cu/Zn ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during therapy. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 95: 65-71.
Tomkins, A. and Watson, F. (1989). Malnutrition and infection. A review. Geneva, ACC/SCN. 5: 136 pp. Geneva (Switzerland).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).