Indications of Lateral Growth of Anticlines. Examples from Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

  • Varoojan K. Sissakian Department of Petroleum Engineering, Komar University of Science and technology, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ala A. Ghafur University of Regina, Regina, Canada
  • Hawkar A. Abdulhaq Department of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, Szeged University, Szeged, Hungary
  • Hassan O. Othman Exploration Geologist, Deventer, Holland
Keywords: Lateral Growth, Water and Wind Gaps, En-echelon Plunge, Dome, Wine Glass, Thrust Fault


The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) forms the northeastern part of the Arabian Plate that is colliding with the Eurasian Plate. Due to the ongoing collision, the whole KRI territory is folded; accordingly, long anticlines are developed in NW – SE trend, they change west wards to almost E – W. The Cretaceous carbonate rocks form the bulk of the anticlines; in the central part of KRG. North and northwest wards, rocks of Paleozoic, Triassic and Jurassic ages are exposed in the core of some anticlines. Whereas southwards, tertiary rocks are exposed in the core of anticlines. From tectonic point of view, the KRI territory is located in four tectonic zones; each has its own characteristics. Majority of the developed anticlines at the KRI are thrusted and exhibit lateral growth. We have presented many examples of laterally growing anticlines with clear indications for their growth.


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Author Biographies

Ala A. Ghafur, University of Regina, Regina, Canada

Ala A. Ghafur graduated from University of Sulaimani in 2004 with B.Sc. degree in Geology and MPhil, PhD. degree in Petroleum Geology from Cardiff University, United Kingdom in 2013 specialized in Sedimentology and Reservoir Characterization. She has sixteen years of teaching and research experience. She has taught and supervised students at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in three different institutions; University of Sulaimani, Cardiff University and University of Kurdistan-Hewler. Furthermore, she conducted research collaboration with University of Regina-Canada. She is currently Assistant Professor in the University of Kurdistan-Hewler.

Hawkar A. Abdulhaq, Department of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, Szeged University, Szeged, Hungary

Hawkar A. Abdulhaq graduated from University of Salahadeen in 2011 with B.Sc. degree in Geology.  He joined MOL Kalegran company as an exploration geologist. In 2015, he studied MSc. degree at the University of Miskolc in Hungary. He was teaching and laboratory assistant at the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering. Currently he is Ph.D. Student, Department of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrology, Szeged University, Hungary.

Hassan O. Othman, Exploration Geologist, Deventer, Holland

Hassan O. Omer holds a B.Sc. from the university of Damascus (Syria) in Geophysics. He is currently working as a teaching and laboratory assistant in Geology at University of Kurdistan Hewler. Furthermore, he worked with several Oil companies in Kurdistan like Gazprom and Taqa energy, and his area of expertise covers Drilling, Mudlogging, Core engineering and Hydrogeology. 


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How to Cite
Sissakian, V., Ghafur, A., Abdulhaq, H., & Othman, H. (2022, December 27). Indications of Lateral Growth of Anticlines. Examples from Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(2), 55-65. Retrieved from
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