Social Media, Internet, and Memes Through the Lens of Political Geography
Almost four billion people in the world use the internet which includes forms of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Reddit, etc. Along with the gifts of such developed communication technologies, many hardships and future problems have emerged. Misinformation leaks, internet trolls, and the newer trend of cyber-nationalism all come with these advanced forms of technology. The purpose of this paper is to define what these negative consequences mean for us, and what our government is doing with this new power. To be able to grasp a scope of what is happening, the history of the internet and cyber-nationalism need to be distinguished as well as showing different forms of use and how they affect us in our daily lives. Looking through the eyes of a political geographer it is important to see if cyber-nationalism deserves its own category yet as a topic of study, and how this is similar or different to the use of propaganda in the past such as World War II. This paper concludes with final thoughts on the internet and cyber-nationalism, and future research possibilities that help to interpret the use of cyber-nationalism and further its study.
Denisova, A. (2016). Political Memes as Tools of Dissent and Alternative Digital Activism in the Russian-language Twitter. PhD thesis, University of Westminster. Retrieved from https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/9zx1y/political-memes-as-tools-of-dissent-and-alternative-digital-activism-in-the-russian-language-twitter.
Kecheng, F. (2019). Is Cyber-Nationalism on the Rise in China?. CHINESE WHISPERS, ECHOWALL. Retrieved from https://www.echo-wall.eu/chinese-whispers/cyber-nationalism-rise-china.
Herf, J. (2006). The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda during World War II and the Holocaust. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Liu, Y. (2016). Don't Go for Humiliation.": Mainland Chinese Cyber Nationalism Versus Visitation to Hong Kong. Unpublished MITM dissertation, Auckland University of Technology. Retrieved from https://orapp.aut.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10292/10088/LiuY.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
Lobjakas, A. (2007). Estonia: War Anniversary Exacerbates Ethnic Divisions. RadioFreeEurope: RadioLiberty, Russia. Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org/a/1076344.html.
Marwick, A. E. & Boyd, D. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media & Society, 13(1), 114-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365313.
Palmer, M.F. (2012). Cybernationalism: Terrorism, Political Activism, and National Identity Creation in Virtual Communities and Social Media. Virtual Communities, Social Networks and Collaboration. Annals of Information Systems, 15. New York, NY, USA: Springer. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3634-8_6
Sherry, J. L. (2014). Media Effects, Communication, and Complexity Science Insights on Games for Learning, In Learning by Playing: Video Gaming in Education by Blumberg F.C. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Wu, X. (2007). Chinese Cyber Nationalism: Evolution, Characteristics, and Implications. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Lexington Books.
Zittrain, J.L. (2014). Reflections on Internet Culture. Journal of Visual Culture, 13(3), 388-94. doi: 10.1177/1470412914544540.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).