An Investigation into the Difficulties of Using Transitional Words in Kurdish EFL Students’ Writing at the University Level

  • Farhad M. Hama Department of English, College of Basic Education, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq; Department of Information Technology and Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
Keywords: Transition Words, Types of Transitional Words, Undergraduate Students' Essays, Academic Writing, Coherence and Cohesion, Discourse Markers.


The aim of this research is to deal with the use of different kinds of transitional words in Kurdish EFL students’ writing in two different levels. Namely, Kurdish EFL second- and third-year students often encounter problems of using transitional words when they want to write any kinds of paragraphs, essays in academic writing lectures. They have particularly made various kinds of mistakes while writing argumentative or persuasive essays. This study comprises of theoretical background and data analysis for samples of writing. It also proposes possible pedagogical implications and recommendations which cover doable teaching strategies for improving writing practice and academic writing. The result shows that second year students have inadequate ability and skills to use different kinds of transitional words. On the other hand, third year students have more abilities, but they have often misrepresented or clichéd most of the types of transitional words.


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How to Cite
Hama, F. (2021, June 30). An Investigation into the Difficulties of Using Transitional Words in Kurdish EFL Students’ Writing at the University Level. UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 107-117.
Research Articles