Impact of Workplace Spirituality on Frontline Medical Staff's Sense of Happiness in The Workplace: Empirical Evidence From The Public Health Sector in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq


  • Hadi Khalil Ismael Department of Business Administration, Technical College of Administration, Duhok Polytechnical University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • James Yohana Odeesh Department of Business Administration, Technical College of Administration, Duhok Polytechnical University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Workplace Spirituality, Happiness in the Workplace, Frontline Medical Staff, Public Hospitals, Kurdistan Region of Iraq


Medical staff in general and front-line medical staff in particular work in difficult working conditions, and it is expected that this will affect their sense of happiness in the work environment. Therefore, in these difficult circumstances, they need the availability of workplace of spirituality that motivates them to perform their tasks efficiently.

This descriptive study contributes to reducing the gap in the experimental studies conducted in this field by examining the impact of workplace spirituality including meaningful work, sense of community, and alignment with organizational values on the frontline medical staff's sense of happiness in the workplace. This study adopts a quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire to collect data from 237 frontline medical staff in four public hospitals in Duhok city, Kurdistan region of Iraq.

The results showed that all dimensions of workplace spirituality have a significant positive impact on sense of happiness in the workplace among frontline medical staff. The results also support the acceptability of the proposed model. The study recommended that the hospital administrations surveyed should work to enhance the medical staff on the front lines’ sense of happiness in the workplace.


Download data is not yet available.


Aboobaker, N., Zakkariya, K., and Edward, M. (2022). Workplace spirituality and employees’ readiness for change as precursors to innovative work behavior: An empirical examination. International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise, 9(1), 6-23.

Alsaadi, M. Y. & Khalil, A. S. (2018). The behavioral contribution of workplace spirituality in building the value of the building the value of the work of the Organization. The Journal of Administration & Economics, 41(115), 45-67.

Azha, M.K., Azahari and Zaiton, Hassan and Mark Edmund, Kasa and Nur Fatihah, Abdullah Bandar (2022). Relationship between Work Place Spirituality and Happiness at Work. In: international counseling convention 2022, Kuching Sarawak-Malaysia.

Boluarte, C., Sánchez, B., Rodríguez, B. & Merino, S. (2020). Working conditions and emotional impact in healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Healthcare Quality Research, 35(6), 401-402. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhqr.2020.08.002.

Chatterjee, S., Chaudhuri, R. & Vrontis, D. (2022). Does remote work flexibility enhance organization performance? Moderating role of organization policy and top management support. Journal of Business Research, 139, 1501–1512.

Del Junco, J. G., Espasandín, F., Dutschke, G. M. J. & Palacios, B. (2013). An approach to the design of a scale for measuring happiness at work of Iberian Companies Athens. ATINER'S Conference Paper Series, No: SME2013-0855, Athens, Greece.

Dhamija, A. (2021). Happiness and Positivity at Workplace in Context of Spirituality: A Conceptual Framework. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(5), 786-790.

Erkus, A. & Afacan Findikli, M. (2021). Workplace Happiness: A research on the effects of workplace environment and psychological capital. Istanbul Management Journal, 91, 1-24. DOI:

Gangwani, S., Alhalawany, R. & Sheikh, S. (2020). Determinants of employee happiness in the work place in hospitality sector in Riyadh. International journal of Innovation, creativity and Change, 14(120), 1209-1228.

Gaur, S. (2019). Spirituality and religiousness: Emerging predictors of happiness. IAHRW International Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 490-494.

Hair, J., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education International.

Hasannejad Z., Hasannejad AH. & Ghodsi E. (2017). Investigating the Relation of Spirituality in the Workplace with Happiness of Employees. International Journal of Scientific Study, 5(3), 147-153.

Ilea, C.D.N., Daina, M.D., Venter, A.C., S, Uteu, C.L., Sab ˘au, M., Badau, D. & Daina, L.G. (2023). The Motivation of Medical Staff and the Work Interestedness in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, in a Tertiary Hospital in Romania. Healthcare, 11, 813. DOI: healthcare11060813.

Kendall, M. (2019). Workplace spirituality and the motivational impact of meaningful work: An experimental research. Journal of Organizational Psychology,19(2), 74-92.

Khan, J., Usman, M., Saeed, I., Ali, A. & Nisar, H. (2022). Does workplace spirituality influence knowledge-share behavior and work engagement in work? Trust as a mediator. Management Science Letters, 12(1), 51-66.

Krishnani, H. (2023). Workplace Spirituality: Exploring the Meaning and Purpose of Life Through Work. Journal of Advanced Research in Social Sciences, 6(2), 48-58. DOI:

Kun, A. & Gadanecz, P. (2019). Workplace happiness, well-being and their relationship with psychological capital: a study of Hungarian teachers. Current Psychology, 41(1), 1-15, DOI: 10.1007/s12144-019-00550-0.

Mahipalan, M. & Sheena, S. (2019). Workplace spirituality and subjective happiness among high school teachers: gratitude as a moderator. Explore, 15, 107–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.explore.2018.07.002.

Farahani, M. F., Jaberi, K. & Purfarzad, Z. (2023). Workplace Spirituality, Compassion Satisfaction, Burnout, and Secondary Traumatic Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iranian Nurses. Perspective in Psychiatric Care, Vol. (2023). DOI:

Odeesh, J. Y. (2023). Human Factors Engineering as a Roadmap for Organizational Happiness. Humanities Journal of University of Zakho (HJUOZ), 10(4), 1031-1051.

Omar, M. K., Ramdani, N. F. S. M., Mohd, I. H. & Hussein, N. (2018). Organizational Happiness Index (OHI): A Study of a Public University in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(11), 1984-1994.

Rus, C. O, Toiu, C., Baban A.S., Vajaean, C., Kassianos, A.P, Karekla, M. & Gloster, A.T. (2022). Working as a Healthcare Professional and Wellbeing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Work Recovery Experiences and Need for Recovery as Mediators. Front. Psychol. 13(718422). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.718422.

Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business-A Skill Building Approach (6th ed.). West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.

Singh, S. & Aggarwal, Y. (2018). Happiness at work scale: Construction and psychometric validation of a measure using mixed method approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(5), 1439–1463. DOI: https://

Sulastini, Wijayanti TC & Rajiani I. (2023). Workplace Spirituality as an Alternative Model for Promoting Commitment to Change and Change-Oriented Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. Administrative Sciences, 13(3):86. DOI: 10.3390/admsci13030086.

Temsah, M.H., Al-Sohime, F., Alamro, N., Al-Eyadhy, A., Al-Hasan, K., Jamal, A., … & Barry, M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. J. Infect. Public Health, 13, 877-882.

Upadhyay, RK., Mishra, AK. & Jain, V. (2019). Workplace spirituality and subjective happiness at higher educational institutions: An Indian perspective. Int. J. Work Organization and Emotion, 10(4), 339-356.

Yaghoubi, N. M. & Motahhari, Z. (2016). Happiness in the light of organizational spirituality: Comprehensive approach. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 5(2016), 123-136.






Research Articles

How to Cite

Impact of Workplace Spirituality on Frontline Medical Staff’s Sense of Happiness in The Workplace: Empirical Evidence From The Public Health Sector in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. (2024). UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1), 43-53.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>